ei: forasmuch as, if, thatOriginal Word: εἰPart of Speech:
Conditional Particle Or ConjunctionTransliteration:
1487 ei (a conditional conjunction) – if. 1487 /ei (followed by any verb) expresses "a condition, thought of as real, or to denote assumptions" (i.e. viewed as factual. for the sake of argument) (BAGD). Accordingly, 1487 (ei) should not be translated "since," but rather always "if" – since the assumption may only be portrayed as valid (true, factual).
NAS Exhaustive ConcordanceWord Origin
a prim. particle; if, whether (a cond. part. introducing circumstances nec. for a given proposition to be trueDefinition
sometimes used with a command or as an indirect question, etc.)NASB Translation
although* (1), if (341), no (1), only (1), only* (11), suppose* (1), though (7), though* (5), unless (2), unless* (5), until* (1), whatever* (1), whether (19), whoever* (3).
Thayer'sSTRONGS NT 1487: εἰ
[εἰ, ἰ: εἰ and ἰ are frequent interchanged in N. T. spelling. This is due partly to itacism, partly to the endeavor to mark the iota sound as long or short. See the remarks on this subject in WHs Appendix, p. 152f (cf. Introductory § 399); Tdf Proleg., p. 83f; Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word εἰ. The use of iota ἰ for εἰ is noticed under the word Iota; instances in which εἰ is substituted for iota ἰ are the folling: Ἀβειληνη WH; Ἀδδει T Tr WH; Ἀντειπας T; Ἀρεοπαγειτης T; Βενιάμειν L T Tr WH; Δαυειδ L T Tr WH; Ἐζεκειας L; Ἐλαμειτης T WH; Ἐλεισαβετ WH; Ἐσλει T Tr WH; Ἐυνεικη Rec.st; ἡλει T Tr WH; ἠλειας T WH; ἱερείχω T WH; ἱεροσολυμειτης T WH; Ἰσραηλειτης T WH, so Tr in John 1:47 (48); Ἰωσείας L T Tr WH; κεἰς L T Tr WH; Κυρεῖνος Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading; Λευεις T WH, so Tr except in Mark 2:14; Λευειτης T WH, so Tr except in Acts 4:36; Λευειτικος T WH; Μελχει T Tr WH; Νηρει T Tr WH; Νινευειτης T WH, so Tr in Matthew 12:41; Ὀζείας L T Tr WH; Πειλᾶτος T WH; Σεμηιν T Tr WH; Ταβειθα WH; Χερούβειν L T Tr WH (χερουβιμ R G); Χοράζειν T Tr WH; ἀφειδεια L; ἐιδεια T Tr WH; ἐπαρχεία T WH; ἐπιποθεια WH; ἡλει T; πανοικεί T WH; ῥαββει T WH; ῥαββουνει WH; σαβαχθανε T Tr WH; ταλειθα WH; τάχειον WH; τραπεζειτης T WH.) εἰ, is first a conditional particle, if (Latinsi); secondly, an interrogative particle, whether, (Latinan, num, ne).
I. εἰ Conditional (on the difference between it and ἐάν, see ἐάν, I. 1 b.) is connected, according to the variety of conditions, with various tenses and moods; viz.
1. with the indicative of all tenses, when anything is simply and generally assumed to be, or to be done, or to have been done, or to be about to be, (Winers Grammar, § 41 b., 2; cf. 42, 2; (Buttmann, 220 (190))).
a. with the present indicative α. following in the apodosis by the present indicative: Matthew 19:10 (εἰ οὕτως ἐστιν ἡ αἰτία ... οὐ συμφέρει γαμῆσαι); ; Romans 7:16, 20; Romans 8:25; Romans 14:15; 1 Corinthians 9:17; Galatians 2:18; Galatians 5:18; Hebrews 12:8; James 2:8f, etc. β. followed by an imperative in the apodosis — either the present, as (Matthew 19:17 L Tr text WH text); Mark 4:23; Mark 7:16 R G L; John 15:18; Acts 13:15; Acts 25:5; 1 Corinthians 7:12, 15; James 3:14, etc.; or the aorist, as Matthew 5:29, 30; Matthew 8:31; Matthew 19:17 (R G T Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading); Mark 9:22 (cf. Buttmann, 55 (48)); Luke 22:67 (); 1 Corinthians 7:9. γ. followed by the future in the apodosis: ; Acts 5:39 L T Tr WH; ; Romans 8:11, 13; 2 Corinthians 11:30, etc. δ. followed by the perfect or the aorist in the apodosis, where it is declared that, if this or that is, something else has or has not occurred: Matthew 12:26, 28; Luke 11:20; 1 Corinthians 15:16; Galatians 2:21; Romans 4:14; 2 Peter 2:20. ε. followed by the imperfect, either with or without ἄν, where in the protasis something is simply assumed to be, but the apodosis shows that what has been assumed cannot be the case. Three passages falling under this head have a doubtful or disputed text: εἰ ἔχετε (T Tr WH, for the R G L εἴχετε) ἐλέγετε ἄν, etc. Luke 17:6; εἰ ... μνημονεύουσιν (T Tr, for R G L WH ἐμνημόνευον) ... εἶχον ἄν, Hebrews 11:15 (where by the present tense the writer refers to the language of the Jewish Fathers as at present corded in the sacred Scriptures; cf. τοιαῦτα λέγοντες Luke 17:14); εἰ τέκνα τοῦ Ἀβραάμ ἐστε (G L T Tr WH, for R ἦτε) ... ἐποιεῖτε ((WH text ποιεῖτε.) R L add ἄν), John 8:39; Alexander Buttmann (1873) in Studien und Kritiken for 1858, p. 474ff (N. T. Gram. § 139, 26; but cf. Meyer on Luke, the passage cited). But 2 Corinthians 11:4 εἰ ... κηρύσσει ... ἀνείχεσθέ G T Tr WH marginal reading (ἀνέχεσθε L WH text) must not be referred to this head; here Paul in the protasis supposes something which actually occurred, in the apodosis censures a thing which actually occurred viz. the readiness with which his readers gave ear continually (this is indicated by the imperfect) to false teachers. On the difficulty of the passage cf. Holsten in the Zeitschr. f. wissensch. Theol. for 1874, p. 1ff; (cf. also Buttmann, 226 (195); but Winer's Grammar, 306 (287) and Meyer at the passage). ζ. with a question as the apodosis: Matthew 6:23; John 5:47; John 7:23; John 8:46; 1 Peter 2:20.
b. with the future indicative: Matthew 26:33; James 2:11 R G; 1 Peter 2:20.
c. with the perfect indicative: John 11:12; Acts 16:15; Romans 6:5; Romans 11:6 (where after εἰ supply λεῖμμα γέγονεν from what precedes), 2 Corinthians 2:5; 2 Corinthians 5:16; 2 Corinthians 7:14.
d. with the aorist indicative — followed by the present in the apodosis, Luke 19:8; Romans 4:2; Romans 15:27; followed by a question in the apodosis, Luke 16:11, 12; John 18:23; 1 Corinthians 4:7; 1 Corinthians 9:11; followed by the aorist in the apodosis, Revelation 20:15; by the Impv. in the apodosis, John 18:23; John 20:15; Romans 11:17; 1 Timothy 5:9, 10; Philemon 1:18; by the future in the apodosis, John 13:32; John 15:20; Hebrews 12:25 (where supply οὐκ ἐκφευξόμεθα in the apodosis).
2. Not infrequently, when a conclusion is drawn from something that is quite certain, εἰ with the indicative is used argumentatively so as to be equivalent in sense to ἐπεί (cf. the use of German wenn) (cf. Winer's Grammar, 448 (418)): Matthew 12:28; Luke 23:31; John 7:4; Romans 5:17; Romans 6:5; Romans 8:31; Romans 11:6, 12; Colossians 2:20; Colossians 3:1, etc.
3. When it is said what would have been, or what would be now or in the future, if something else were or had been, εἰ is used with the imperfect, pluperfect, and aorist indicative; in the apodosis it is followed in direct discourse by ἄν with the imperfect or the pluperfect or the aorist; sometimes ἄν is omitted, (on the causes of the omission, see Buttmann, § 139, 27); sometimes the apodosis is made a question (cf. Winers Grammar, 304f (285f)).
a. εἰ with the imperfect, followed in the apodosis by ἄν with the imperfect: Matthew 23:30; Luke 7:39 (εἰ οὗτος ἦν προφήτης, ἐγίνωσκεν ἄν, if this man were a prophet, he would know); John 5:46; John 8:42; John 9:41; John 15:19; 1 Corinthians 11:31; Galatians 1:10; Hebrews 8:4, 7 (if ... were, etc., there would not be sought, etc., viz. in the O. T. passage quoted Hebrews 8:8); by a question in the apodosis: 1 Corinthians 12:19; Hebrews 7:11; by ἄν with the aorist, where the Latin uses the pluperfect subjunctive: John 11:32 if thou hadst been here, οὐκ ἄν ἀπέθανε μου ὁ ἀδελφός, my brother would not have died (when he did (cf. below); Buttmann, § 139, 25 regards the imperfect in protasis as expressing duration)); John 4:10; John 18:30 (εἰ μή ἦν οὗτος κακοποιός, οὐκ ἄν σοι παρεδώκαμεν αὐτόν, we would not have delivered him to thee); Acts 18:14; by ἄν with the pluperfect: John 11:21 (εἰ ἦς ὧδε ... οὐκ ἄν ἐτεθνήκει, would not have died (and be now dead; cf. Winers Grammar, 304 (285) and see above; but L T Tr text WH read the aorist here also)); 1 John 2:19.
b. εἰ with the pluperfect, followed in the apodosis by ἄν with the pluperfect or the aorist, in the sense of the Latin pluperfect subjunctive: Matthew 12:7 (εἰ ἐγνώκειτε, if ye had understood, i. e., if ye knew, οὐκ ἄν κατεδικάσατε τούς ἀναιτίους, ye would not have condemned the guiltless); Matthew 24:43 and Luke 12:39 (εἰ ᾔδει, if he had perceived, i. e., if he knew, ἐγρηγόρησεν ἄν, he would have watched, namely, before the thief had approached (Tr text WH omit ἄν in Luke, the passage cited)); John 4:10; John 8:19; John 14:7 (R G L). c:. with the aorist in the same sense as the Latin pluperfect subjunctive: εἰ ἐδόθη νόμος ... ὄντως ἄν ἐκ νόμου ἦν ἡ δικαιοσύνη, if a law had been given, righteousness would in truth come from the law, Galatians 3:21; εἰ αὐτούς Ἰησοῦς κατέπαυσεν, if Joshua had given them rest, οὐκ ἄν περί ἄλλης ἐλάλει, he would not be speaking, namely, in the passage quoted, Hebrews 4:8; apodosis without ἄν, John 15:22, see ἄν I. 3, p. 33f.
4. As in classic Greek, εἰ with the indicative is often joined to verbs expressing wonder, surprise, or other strong emotion (where ὅτι might have been expected), when the thing spoken of is either not quite certain, or, although certain, yet in accordance with the well-known Greek urbanity is represented as not quite free from doubt (Matthiae, ii., p. 1474f; Kühner, ii., p. 887f; (Jelf, § 804, 9); Winers Grammar, § 60, 6; (Buttmann, § 139, 52]). Thus, it is joined — to the verb, θαυμάζω: ἐθαύμαζεν, εἰ ἤδη τέθνηκε, for the matter had not yet been investigated; hence, it is added ἐπηρώτησεν αὐτόν, εἰ ἤδη (R G T Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading πάλαι) ἀπέθανεν, Mark 15:44; μή θαυμάζετε, εἰ μισεῖ ὑμᾶς ὁ κόσμος (the thing is certain) 1 John 3:13; to the phrase ἄπιστον κρίνεται: Acts 26:8 (with παράδοξον preceding, Lucian, dial. mort. 13, 1); to καλόν ἐστιν and λυσιτελεῖ: Mark 9:42 and Luke 17:2 (Matthew 18:6 has συμφέρει, ἵνα); Matthew 26:24 and Mark 14:21; to μέγα ἐστι: 1 Corinthians 9:11 (on which see 8 below); 2 Corinthians 11:15; τί θέλω, εἰ ἤδη ἀνήφθη (τό πῦρ), how would I if (i. e., that) it were already kindled (but it has not yet been kindled), Luke 12:49 (others besides, but cf. Meyer at the passage; (so B. 1. e.; cf. Winers Grammar, 448 (418); see τίς, 1 e. γ. at the end); Sir. 23:14 θελήσεις, εἰ μή ἐγεννήθης; (in addition to the other interpretations noticed by Winer's and Meyer the passages cited mention may be made of that which takes θέλω as subjunctive: what am I to choose if (as I may well assume) it has already been kindled; cf. Green, 'Critical Notes' at the passage)).
5. Contrary to Greek usage, in imitation of the Hebrew אִם, εἰ, with the indicative is so used in oaths and asseverations that by aposiopesis the formula of imprecation (constituting the apodosis) is suppressed (Winers Grammar, § 55 at the end; Buttmann, § 149, 4): ἀμήν λέγω ὑμῖν, εἰ δοθήσεται ... σημεῖον (fully expressed, 'may God punish me, if it shall be given,' i. e. it shall by no means be given), Mark 8:12; ὤμοσα, εἰ εἰσελεύσονται εἰς τήν κατάπαυσιν μου (fully, 'let my name no longer be Jehovah, if they shall enter,' etc.), Hebrews 3:11; Hebrews 4:3, from Psalm 94:11<10> () the Sept. (Hebrew אִם, Genesis 14:23; Numbers 14:30; 1 Samuel 14:45, etc.; we have the full expression in 1 Samuel 3:17; Song of Solomon 2:7, etc.).
6. Sometimes, as in classic Greek, after a protasis with εἰ and the indicative, the apodosis is suppressed on account of mental agitation and left to be supplied by the reader or the hearer from the context (cf. Winer's Grammar, 599f (557)): εἰ βούλει παρενεγκεῖν τό ποτήριον τοῦτο (namely, παρένεγκε (but here L Tr WH adopt the imperative in place of the infinitive; yet cf. Buttmann, 396 (339))), Luke 22:42; εἰ δέ πνεῦμα ἐλάλησεν αὐτῷ ἤ ἄγγελος, supply in place of an apodosis the question what then? Acts 23:9 (the apodosis added in Rec., μή θεομαχωμεν is spurious); εἰ ἔγνως ... τά πρός εἰρήνην σου, namely, ἐπιστευες ἄν ἐμοί, Luke 19:42 (Buttmann, 396 (339)].
7. The conditional εἰ is joined with the optative, to indicate that the condition is merely thought of or stated as a possibility (cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2, p. 491ff; Winers Grammar, 293f (275f); Buttmann, § 139, 24). No example of this construction is found in the Gospels; very few in the rest of the N. T.
a. universally, in short intercalated clauses: εἰ τύχοι, if it so chance, it may be (see τυγχάνω 2), 1 Corinthians 14:10; 1 Corinthians 15:37; εἰ θέλοι τό θέλημα τοῦ Θεοῦ, 1 Peter 3:17 (Rec. θέλει.
b. where it indicates that something may occur repeatedly (cf. Klotz, the passage cited, p. 492f): εἰ καί πάσχοιτε, 1 Peter 3:14 (cf. Winers Grammar, as above).
c. where the condition represents the mind and judgment of others: εἰς ὁ ἐβουλεύοντο (R G ἐβουλεύσαντο), εἰ δύναιντο ἐξῶσαι (WH text ἐκσωσαι (which see)) τό πλοῖον, into which bay (or rather 'upon which beach'; see ἐξωθέω) they determined to run the ship, if they could; as though the navigators had said among themselves, ἐξώσομεν, εἰ δυνάμεθα, Acts 27:39; so also εἰ τί ἔχοιεν πρός με, if they think they have anything against me, Acts 24:19.
8. with the subjunctive, when it is assumed that something may take place, but whether it will in reality is unknown before the event, in order to make the event seem to be more certain than if ἐάν were used (Klotz, the passage cited, p. 500ff; Winers Grammar, 294f (276f); Buttmann, § 139, 22): εἰ ... θερισωμεν, 1 Corinthians 9:11 Tdf. editions 2, 7 (Lachmann marginal reading; others, θερίσομεν); (the Sept. Genesis 43:3f; Sir. 22:26; 4 Macc. 6:20). But see III. below, under εἰ μή, εἰ μήτι, εἰ πῶς, εἴτε ... εἴτε, εἰ τίς.
II. εἰ Interrogative, whether. "The conditional particle gets this force if a question is asked about anything, whether it is or is not so, and that about which the question is put is uttered as it were conditionally" (Klotz, the passage cited, p. 508; (Winers Grammar, § 57, I; Alexander Buttmann (1873) 248ff (214ff); 254f (218f)).
1. As in Greek writings in an indirect question after verbs of seeing, asking, deliberating, knowing, saying, etc.
a. with the present indicative: as ὀυδ' εἰ πνεῦμα ἅγιον ἐστιν, ἠκούσαμεν (properly, according to the conditional force of the particle, 'if there is (i. e. has appeared, been given; cf. εἰμί, I. 2) a Holy Spirit, we did not even hear'), Acts 19:2; ἴδωμεν, εἰ ἔρχεται, Matthew 27:49; Mark 15:36; βουλεύεται (T WH L marginal reading βουλήσεται), εἰ δυνατός ἐστιν, Luke 14:31; ἵνα εἴπῃς, εἰ σύ εἰ, Matthew 26:63; (ἵνα γνῷ τήν δοκιμήν ὑμῶν εἰ (WH marginal reading ἡ) ... ὑπηκωι ἐστε, 2 Corinthians 2:9 (see WH. Introductory § 404)); after οὐκ οἶδα, John 9:25; after κρίνατε, Acts 4:19; δοκιμάζετε ((?), πειράζετε), 2 Corinthians 13:5.
b. with the future indicative (cf. Winers Grammar, 300 (282); Buttmann, § 139, 61 b.): δεήθητι, εἰ ἄρα ἀφεθήσεται σοι, Acts 8:22; τί οἶδας, εἰ ... σώσεις, 1 Corinthians 7:16; παρετήρουν, εἰ θεραπεύσει (Tdf. θεραπεύει), Mark 3:2 and in Luke 6:7 (R G WH marginal reading); ἦλθεν (namely, to see), εἰ ἄρα τί εὑρήσει, Mark 11:13.
c. with the aorist indicative: οὐκ οἶδα, εἰ τινα ἄλλον ἐβάπτισα, whether I baptized, 1 Corinthians 1:16; ἐπηρώτησαν, εἰ πάλαι (L Tr text WH text ἤδη) ἀπέθανεν, whether he were long dead, Mark 15:44; εἶπε μοι, εἰ ... ἀπέδοσθε, Acts 5:8.
d. with the subjunctive aorist (cf. Buttmann, 255f (220); Winer's Grammar, 298f (280f)): διώκω, εἰ καί καταλάβω, I press on (namely, πειρωμενος or σκοπῶν, trying to see), whether I may also lay hold, Philippians 3:12. Sosi is used in Latin, e. g. Nepos, vit. Hann. 8 Hannibal ...African accessit in finibus Cyrenaeorum (namely,experturus),si forte Carthaginienses ad bellum possent induci Caesar b. g. 1, 8, 4si perrumpere possent, conati; add Caesar b. g. 2, 9, 1. Cf. Kühner, ii., p. 1032f; (Jelf, § 877 b.).
2. Contrary to the usage of Greek authors, like the Hebrew אִם and the interrogative he (ה), it is used in the Sept. and the N. T. (especially by Luke) also in direct questions (cf. the colloquial use of the German ob; e. g.ob icb wohl thun soll?); cf. Winers Grammar, § 57, 1; Buttmann, 248 (214), and, in opposition to those who have striven to absolve the sacred writers from this misuse of the particle (especially Fritzsche and Meyer (see the latter's note on Matthew 12:10 and Luke 13:23; he quotes with approval the language of Ast (Platonic Lexicon, vol. i. 601), 'dubitanter interrogat, ita ut interrogatio videatur directa esse)), cf. Lipsius, Paulin. Rechtfertigungslehre, p. 30ff: — εἶπε τίς αὐτῷ, κύριε, εἰ ὀλογοι οἱ σῳζόμενοι; Luke 13:23; κύριε, εἰ πατάξομεν ἐν μάχαιρα (μαχαίρῃ T Tr WH); Luke 22:49; κύριε, εἰ ... ἀποκαθιστάνεις τήν βασιλείαν; Acts 1:6; cf. besides, Matthew 12:10; Matthew 19:3; Mark 8:23 (according to the reading of (Tdf. 2, 7) Tr (marginal reading WH text) εἰ τί βλέπεις for R G L T Tr text WH marginal reading βλέπει); Acts 19:2, etc. (Genesis 17:17; Genesis 43:6; 1 Samuel 10:24, etc.; in the O. T. Apocrypha, 2 Macc. 7:7 2Macc. 15:3; 4 Macc. 18:17 from Ezekiel 37:3 the Sept.; Tobit 5:5).
III. εἰ with other particles and with the indefinite pronoun τίς, τί.
1. εἰ ἄρα, see ἄρα, 1.
2. εἴγε, see γέ, 3 c.
3. εἰ δέ καί, a. but if also, so that καί belongs to some word that follows: Luke 11:18 (but if Satan also).
b. but though, but even if, so that καί belongs to εἰ: 1 Corinthians 4:7; 2 Corinthians 4:3; 2 Corinthians 5:16 (R G; others omit δέ); 2 Corinthians 11:6; see 6 below.
4. εἰ δέ μή, but if not; if it is or were otherwise, (Buttmann, 393 (336f), cf. 345 (297); Winer's Grammar, as below): John 14:2 (εἰ δέ μή, namely, οὕτως ἦν), John 14:11 (εἰ δέ μή namely, ἐμοί πιστεύετε, i. e. my words). As in these passages so generally the phrase stands where a word or clause must be repeated in thought from what immediately precedes; it thus has the force of the Latinalioquin, otherwise, or else, (Winer's Grammar, 583 (543)): Revelation 2:5, 16; also after negative declarations, Mark 2:21f; cf. Matthiae, § 617 b.
5. εἰ δέ μήγε, see γέ, 3 d.
6. εἰ καί, a. iif even, if also, (cf. εἰ δέ καί, 3 a., (and 7 below)): 1 Corinthians 7:21 (cf. Meyer at the passage; Lightfoot on Philemon, p. 324); 2 Corinthians 11:15.
b. though, although: Luke 11:8; 2 Corinthians 4:16; 2 Corinthians 7:8, 12; Philippians 2:17; Colossians 2:5 (εἰ γάρ καί); Hebrews 6:9; with the optative, 1 Peter 3:14; see I. 7 b. above.
7. καί εἰ, even if: Mark 14:29 (T Tr WH εἰ καί); 1 Peter 3:1; cf. Klotz, the passage cited, p. 519 (who says, "In εἰ καί the conditional particle εἰ has the greater force; in καί εἰ the conjunctive particle καί. Hence, καί εἰ is used of what is only assumed to be true; εἰ καί, on the other hand, of what is as it is said to be." Bäumlein (Griech. Partikeln, p. 151) says, "In εἰ καί the καί naturally belongs to the conditional clause and is taken up into it, if even; in the combination καί εἰ the καί belongs to the consequent clause, even if. Sometimes however the difference disappears." Krüger (sec. 65, 5, 15): "with καί εἰ, the leading clause is regarded as holding under every condition, even the one stated, which appears to be the most extreme; with εἰ καί the condition, which may also come to pass, is regarded as a matter of indifference in reference to the leading clause;" Sauppe (on Demosthenes, Ol. 2 § 20) is very explicit: "καί εἰ and εἰ καί both indicate that something conflicts with what is expressed in the leading clause, but that that is (or is done) notwithstanding. καί εἰ, however, represents the thing adduced in the conditional sentence to be the only thing conflicting; but when the conditional particle precedes (εἰ καί), the representation is that something which is (or may be) accompanied by many others (καί) conflicts ineffectually. Accordingly, the phrase καί αἱ greatly augments the force of what follows, εἰ καί lays less emphasis upon it; although it is evident that εἰ καί can often be substituted for καί εἰ." Cf. Herm. Vig., p. 829f; Winer's Grammar, 444 (413); Ellicott on Philippians 2:17; Schmalfeld, Griech. Syntax, § 41; Paley, Greek Particles, p. 31).
8. εἰ μή, a. in a conditional protasis, with the same sequence of moods and tenses as the simple εἰ see I. above, if not, unless, except, (Winers Grammar, 477ff (444ff); Buttmann, 345 (297)): Matthew 24:22; John 9:33; John 15:22, 24; Romans 7:7, etc.
b. it serves, with the entire following sentence, to limit or correct what has just been said, only, save that, (Latinnisi quod) (Buttmann, 359 (308)): Mark 6:5; 1 Corinthians 7:17 (where Paul by the addition εἰ μή ἑκάστῳ κτλ. strives to prevent anyone in applying what had been said a little while before, viz. οὐ δεδούλωται ... ἐν τοιούτοις to his own case, from going too far); in ironical answers, unless perchance, save forsooth that, (Kühner, § 577, 7; (Jelf, § 860, 5 Obs.)): εἰ μή χρῄζομεν κτλ., 2 Corinthians 3:1 Rec. c. εἰ μή very often coalesce into one particle, as it were, which takes the same verb as the preceding negation: unless, equivalent to except, save, (Kühner, § 577, 8; Buttmann, 359 (308));
a. universally: Matthew 11:27; Matthew 12:39; Mark 2:26; Mark 8:14; John 3:13; Romans 7:7; Romans 13:1, 8; 1 Corinthians 8:4; 1 Corinthians 12:3; 2 Corinthians 12:5, etc. as in classic Greek, μόνος, μόνον, is added pleonastically: Matthew 17:8; Matthew 21:19; Matthew 24:36; Acts 11:19; Philippians 4:15; Revelation 13:17, etc. β. after negatives joined to nouns it is so used as to refer to the negative alone (hence, many have regarded it as used for ἀλλά (i. e. as being not exceptive but adversative)), and can be rendered in Latinsed tantum, but only: Matthew 12:4 (οὐκ ἐξόν ἦν αὐτῷ φαγεῖν οὐδέ τοῖς μετ' αὐτοῦ, εἰ μή τοῖς ἱερεῦσι μόνοις, as if οὐκ ἐξόν ἦν φαγεῖν alone preceded); Luke 4:26; Romans 14:14; Revelation 9:4; Revelation 21:27 (ἐάν μή is so used in Galatians 2:16; on Galatians 1:19 see Ἰάκωβος, 3); cf. Fritzsche on Romans, vol. iii., p. 195; (see ἐάν, I. 3 c. and references). γ. when preceded by the interrogative τίς in questions having a negative force: Mark 2:7; Luke 5:21; Romans 11:15; 1 Corinthians 2:11; 2 Corinthians 2:2; 2 Corinthians 12:13; Hebrews 3:18; 1 John 2:22; 1 John 5:5; (Xenophon, oec. 9, 1; Aristophanes eqq. 615). δ. with other conjunctions: εἰ μή ἵνα John 10:10; εἰ μή ὅταν, Mark 9:9; εἰ μή ὅτι etc., 2 Corinthians 12:13; Ephesians 4:9. ε. it has its own verb, and makes a phrase by itself: ὁ οὐκ ἐστιν ἄλλο, εἰ μή τινες εἰσιν οἱ ταράσσοντες ὑμᾶς which means nothing else, save that there are some who trouble you, Galatians 1:7 (so Winer (commentary at the passage) et al.; but see Meyer))
d. ἐκτός εἰ μή, arising from the blending of the two expressions εἰ μή and ἐκτός εἰ, like the Latinnisi si equivalent topraeterquam si, except in case, except: 1 Timothy 5:19; with the aorist indicative, 1 Corinthians 15:2; with the subjunctive present 1 Corinthians 14:5; (Lucian, de luctu c. 19; dial. meret. 1, 2, etc.). Cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 459; Winers Grammar, § 65, 3 c.; (Buttmann, index under the word ἐκτός εἰ μή).
9. εἰ μήν, assuredly, surely, in oaths: Hebrews 6:14 L T Tr WH (for R G ἤ μήν (which see)) and several times in the Sept. as Ezekiel 33:27; Ezekiel 34:8; (cf. ; 1 Kings 21:23 ()), etc.; here, if εἰ did not come from ἤ by itacism, εἰ μήν must be explained as confusion of the Hebraisic εἰ μή (see I. 5 above) and the Greek formula of asseveration ἤ μήν; cf. Bleek on Heb. vol. 2:2, p. 248ff, and what Fritzsche says on the other side, commentary on Baruch 2:29; Judith 1:12; (cf. Kneucker on Baruch, the passage cited; Buttmann, 359 (308); Tdf. Proleg., p. 59; WHs Appendix, p. 151; B. D. under the word , I. 31). 10>
10. εἰ μή τί or μήτι, unless in some respect, unless perchance, unless indeed: ironically, with the present indicative, 2 Corinthians 13:5; hesitatingly, with the subjunctive aorist Luke 9:13; Meyer at the passage (also Winers Grammar, 294 (276); Buttmann, 221 (191)); τί ἄν: 1 Corinthians 7:5, see ἄν, IV.
11. εἰ οὐ (fully discussed by Winers Grammar, § 55, 2 c. and Buttmann, 345ff (297ff)), if not; this combination is used much more frequently in the N. T. than in the more elegant Greek authors; it differs from εἰ μή in this, that in the latter μή belongs to the particle εἰ, while in εἰ οὐ the οὐ refers to some following word and denies it emphatically, not infrequently even coalescing with it into a single idea.
a. when the idea to which οὐ belongs is antithetic a. to a positive term, either preceding or following: εἰ δέ οὐ μοιχεύεις φονεύεις δέ, James 2:11 (in R G the future); εἰ γάρ ὁ Θεός ... οὐκ ἐφείσατο, ... ἀλλά ... παρέδωκεν εἰς κρίσιν, 2 Peter 2:4f; εἰ καί οὐ δώσει ... διά γέ ... δώσει, Luke 11:8; εἰ οὐ ποιῶ ... εἰ δέ ποιῶ, John 10:37f; εἰ γάρ ἐπιστεύετε ..., εἰ δέ ... οὐ πιστεύετε, John 5:46f; add, Mark 11:26 R G L; Romans 8:9; 1 Corinthians 9:2; 1 Corinthians 11:6; James 3:2. β. to some other idea which is negative (formally or virtually): εἰ ... οὐκ ἀκούουσιν, οὐδέ ... πεισθήσονται, Luke 16:31; εἰ ... οὐκ ἐφείσατο, οὐδέ σου φείσεται (Rec. φείσηται), Romans 11:21; add, 1 Corinthians 15:13, 15-17; 2 Thessalonians 3:10; followed in the apodosis by a question having the force of a negative: Luke 16:11; John 3:12; 1 Timothy 3:5. γ. the οὐ denies with emphasis the idea to which it belongs: καλόν ἦν αὐτῷ εἰ οὐκ ἐγεννήθη, good were it for him not to have been born, Matthew 26:24; Mark 14:21. δ. the whole emphasis is placed on the negative itself: εἰ σύ οὐκ εἰ ὁ Χριστός, John 1:25.
b. the οὐ coalesces, as it were, with the word to which it belongs into a single idea: εἰ δέ οὐκ ἐγκρατεύονται if they are incontinent, 1 Corinthians 7:9; εἰ τίς τῶν ἰδίων οὐ προνοεῖ (or προνοειται T Tr text WH marginal reading), "neglects, 1 Timothy 5:8; add, Luke 14:26; 1 Corinthians 16:22; Revelation 20:15, etc.
12. εἰ οὖν, if then: Matthew 6:23; Matthew 7:11; Luke 11:13, 36; John 13:14; John 18:8; Acts 11:1; Colossians 3:1; Philemon 1:1. (On εἰ μέν οὖν see μέν II. 4.)
13. εἴπερ (so T WH (except in 2 Corinthians 5:3 marginal reading), but L Tr εἰ περ; cf. Winers Grammar, 45; Lipsius, Gram. Unters., p. 123) (εἰ and περ, and this apparently from περί), properly, if on the whole; if only, provided that, is used of a thing which is assumed to be, but whether rightly or wrongly is left in doubt (Herm. ad Vig., p. 831 (so Winers Grammar, 448 (417); but cf. Bäumlein, Griech. Partikeln, p. 202 (cf. 64 bottom); Klotz ad Devar. 2:2, p. 528, and especially under the word εἴγε (in γέ, 3 c.) and the references to Meyer, Lightfoot, Ellicott, there given)): Romans 8:9, 17; 1 Corinthians 8:5; 1 Corinthians 15:15; 1 Peter 2:3 (where L T Tr WH εἰ); by a species of rhetorical politeness it is used of that about which there is no doubt: 2 Thessalonians 1:6; Romans 3:30 L T Tr WH; 2 Corinthians 5:3 L Tr WH marginal reading
14. εἰ πῶς (LTr WH) or εἴπως (G T), if in any way, if by any means, if possibly: with the optative present (see I. 7 above), Acts 27:12; interrogatively, with the future indicative, Romans 1:10; with the subjunctive aorist, so that before εἰ the word σκοπῶν or πειρωμενος must be mentally supplied (see II. 1 d. above): Romans 11:14; Philippians 3:11.
15. εἴτε ... εἴτε, a. whether ... or (as disjunc. conjunc.,sive ... sive; cf. Winers Grammar, 440 (409f); Buttmann, 221 (191)), without a verb following: Romans 12:6-8; 1 Corinthians 3:22; 1 Corinthians 8:5; 2 Corinthians 5:9; Philippians 1:18, 20, 27; 2 Thessalonians 2:15; Colossians 1:16, 20; 1 Peter 2:13f; εἴτε οὖν ... εἴτε, 1 Corinthians 15:11; followed by the present indicative, 1 Corinthians 12:26; 1 Corinthians 13:8; 2 Corinthians 1:6; followed by the subjunctive present 1 Thessalonians 5:10, where the use of the subjunctive was occasioned by the subjunctive ζήσωμεν in the leading clause; cf. Winers Grammar, 294 (276); Buttmann, 221 (191).
b. whether ... or (as indirect interrogatives,utrum ... an; cf. Buttmann, 250 (215)) (see examples from Greek authors in Matthiae, p. 1476f): after οὐκ οἶδα, 2 Corinthians 12:2f.
16. εἰ τίς, εἰ τί: examples of this combination have already been given among the preceding; here may be added εἰ τίς ἕτερος, εἰ τί ἕτερον and if (there be) any other person or thing — a phrase used as a conclusion after the mention or enumeration of several particulars belonging to the same class (in the classics εἰ τίς ἄλλος, εἰ καί τίς ἄλλος, καί εἰ τί ἄλλο, etc., in Herodotus, Xenophon, Plato, others): Romans 13:9; 1 Timothy 1:10; εἰ τίς with subjunctive present Revelation 11:5 Rec.; with the subjunctive aorist, ibid. T Tr WH text
forasmuch as, if, that
A primary particle of conditionality; if, whether, that, etc. -- forasmuch as, if, that, (al-)though, whether. Often used in connection or composition with other particles, especially as in eige, ei de me(ge), ei kai, ei me, ei me ti, ei per, ei pos, ei tis, ek. See also ean.
see GREEK eige
see GREEK ei de me(ge)
see GREEK ei kai
see GREEK ei me
see GREEK ei me ti
see GREEK ei per
see GREEK ei pos