2763. charam
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charam: accursed
Original Word: חָרַם
Part of Speech: Verb
Transliteration: charam
Phonetic Spelling: (khaw-ram')
Short Definition: accursed

I. [חָרַם] verb Hiph`il ban, devote, exterminate (MI17 החרמתה of devoting, dedicating a city to Chemosh, in clause with כי explaining massacre of all inhabitants; the altar-hearth of ׳י there was dragged before Chemosh; be prohibited, forbidden, unlawful, become sacred; II. make, pronounce sacred, inviolable; Ethiopic prohibit from common use, consecrate to God, esteem unlawful; Palmyrene חרם = consacrÈ VogNo 35; Nabataean id., Eutp. 28; Sabean מחרם sanctuary, temple, OsZMG 1865, 176. 252, חרמתן DHMZMG 1875, 594; Aramaic אַחֲרִים, and especially anathematize, excommunicate; see also WeSkizzen iii, 165, DrSm 100 ff., RSSemitic i. 140 (150)) — Hiph`il Perfect הֶהֱרִים Joshua 8:26 5t.; הֶחֱרִם Joshua 10:28; 2masculine singular וְהַחֲרַמְתָּ֫ה 1 Samuel 15:18; 1singular הֶחֱרַמְתִּי 1 Samuel 15:20; וְהַחֲרַמְתִּ֫י Numbers 21:2; 2feminine singular וְהַחֲרַמְתְּ(יׅ consecutive Micah 4:13 (so ᵐ5 ᵑ9 ᵑ6 ᵑ7 RV most; ᵑ01singular), see Ges§ 44, R. 4; plural הֶחֱרִימוּ 1 Samuel 15:9; 2Chronicles 32:14 etc.; (1 Samuel 15:3 read והחרמתו ᵐ5 We Dr); Imperfect יַחֲרִם Leviticus 27:28; וַיַּחֲרֵם Numbers 21:3; Joshua 10:37; suffix וַיַּחֲרִימָהּ Joshua 10:1; 1plural וַנַּחֲרֵם Deuteronomy 2:34; Deuteronomy 3:6 etc.; Imperative הַחֲרֵם Deuteronomy 13:16; plural הַחֲרִימוּ Jeremiah 51:3; suffix הַחֲרִימוּהָ Jeremiah 50:26; Infinitive absolute הַחֲרֵם Deuteronomy 3:6 4t.; construct הַחֲרִים2Chronicles 20:23; Daniel 11:44; suffix הַחֲרִימָם Joshua 11:20 4t.; — ban, devote (especially religiously, followed by objects hostile to the theocracy [see especially Exodus 22:19 Hoph`al]; this involved Generally their destruction; when a city was 'devoted' the inhabitants were put to death, the spoil being destroyed or not according to the gravity of the occasion [contrast Joshua 6:17,21; 1 Samuel 15:3 with Deuteronomy 2:34f. Deuteronomy 3:6,7], compare MI17 לעשתר כמש החרמתה to Ashtar-Chemosh I devoted it, i.e. the city Nebo); —

1 most often of devoting to destruction cities of Canaanites and other neighbours of Israel, exterminating inhabitants, and destroying or appropriating their possessions:

a. Israel and her leaders subject Numbers 21:2,3(destruction according to vow), Joshua 6:21 (compare חֵרֶם ליהוה Joshua 6:17; all J); in Joshua 6:18 read תַּחְמְדוּ (for ᵑ0 תַּחֲרִימוּ, see Di VB); Joshua 8:26 (ᵐ5, not ᵐ5L, omit verse), Joshua 10:1 (JE), Deuteronomy 2:34; Deuteronomy 3:6 (twice in verse); Deuteronomy 7:2 (twice in verse) (commanded through Moses, compare for underlying thought Deuteronomy 7:4; Deuteronomy 7:5; Deuteronomy 7:6), Deuteronomy 20:17 (twice in verse) (commanded by ׳י), Joshua 2:10; Joshua 10:28,35,37,39,40 (divine command), Joshua 11:11,12,20,21 (divine command Joshua 11:12; Joshua 11:20; all D), 1 Samuel 15:3,8,9 (twice in verse); 1 Samuel 15:15,18,20 (divine command 1 Samuel 15:3; 1 Samuel 15:18; 1 Samuel 15:20, compare 1 Samuel 15:11; 1 Samuel 15:22; 1 Samuel 15:23); quite secondary is simple exterminate 1 Kings 9:21; 1 Chronicles 4:41.

b. secondary meaning destroy, exterminate, also with other nations subject: — 2 Kings 19:11 = Isaiah 37:11 2Chronicles 32:14; 20:23; Jeremiah 50:21,26 (both by divine command), Jeremiah 51:3; Daniel 11:44.

c. God as subject, figurative all nations and their armies Isaiah 34:2; the nations of Western Asia Jeremiah 25:9; the tongue of the Egyptian sea (by drying it up) Isaiah 11:15 (but read perhaps החריב with ᵐ5 ᵑ6 ᵑ9 ᵑ7).

d. so also of devoting even Israelites: a city of Israel for worshipping other gods Deuteronomy 13:16; residents of Jabesh-Gilead for not joining in campaign against Benjamin Judges 21:11.

2 devote to ׳י: for sacred uses החרים ליהוה the spoil of the nations Micah 4:13; private possessions, whether a man, animal, or field Leviticus 27:28 (P).

Hoph`al Imperfect יָחֳרַם Leviticus 27:29; Ezra 10:8; יָחֳרָ֑ם Exodus 22:19; —

1 be put under the ban, devoted (to death), for worshipping other gods than ׳י Exodus 22:19 (J E; earliest use of word in OT); for some other theocratic offence Leviticus 27:29 (P; see Di).

2 devoted, i.e. forfeited, to the temple treasures Ezra 10:8. — On חרם see especially Di (Kn) Leviticus 27:28; EwAntiq. 75. 78, Dr 1 Samuel 15:33.

II. [חָרַם] verb slit (nose, lip, ear, etc.), mutilate, especially face (Arabic perforate, pierce, slit the partition between the nostrils, or the lip, or the lobe of the ear) —

Qal Passive participle אִישׁ עִוֵּר אוֺ מִּסֵּחַ אוֺ חָרֻם אוֺ שָׂרוּעַ a man blind or lame or mutilated in the face (in nose, lip, ear, etc.), or too long in a limb Leviticus 21:18 (H), see Di (Kn).

make accursed, consecrate, utterly destroy, devote, forfeit, have a flat nose, utterly slay

A primitive root; to seclude; specifically (by a ban) to devote to religious uses (especially destruction); physical and reflexive, to be blunt as to the nose -- make accursed, consecrate, (utterly) destroy, devote, forfeit, have a flat nose, utterly (slay, make away).

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