Bible ConcordanceDaniel (74 Occurrences)
Matthew 24:15 "When, therefore, you see the abomination of desolation, which was spoken of through Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand), (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 13:14 But when you see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing where it ought not (let the reader understand), then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains, (WEB KJV WBS YLT)
Numbers 31:36 The half, which was the portion of those who went out to war, was in number three hundred thirty-seven thousand five hundred sheep: Daniel (WEB)
1 Chronicles 3:1 Now these were the sons of David, who were born to him in Hebron: the firstborn, Amnon, of Ahinoam the Jezreelitess; the second, Daniel, of Abigail the Carmelitess; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezra 8:2 Of the sons of Phinehas, Gershom. Of the sons of Ithamar, Daniel. Of the sons of David, Hattush. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Nehemiah 10:6 Daniel, Ginnethon, Baruch, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 14:14 though these three men, Noah, Daniel, and Job, were in it, they should deliver but their own souls by their righteousness, says the Lord Yahweh. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 14:20 though Noah, Daniel, and Job, were in it, as I live, says the Lord Yahweh, they should deliver neither son nor daughter; they should but deliver their own souls by their righteousness. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 28:3 behold, you are wiser than Daniel; there is no secret that is hidden from you; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 1:6 Now among these were, of the children of Judah, Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 1:7 The prince of the eunuchs gave names to them: to Daniel he gave the name of Belteshazzar; and to Hananiah, of Shadrach; and to Mishael, of (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 1:8 But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king's dainties, nor with the wine which he drank: therefore he requested of the prince of the eunuchs that he might not defile himself. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 1:9 Now God made Daniel to find kindness and compassion in the sight of the prince of the eunuchs. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 1:10 The prince of the eunuchs said to Daniel, I fear my lord the king, who has appointed your food and your drink: for why should he see your faces worse looking than the youths who are of your own age? so would you endanger my head with the king. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 1:11 Then said Daniel to the steward whom the prince of the eunuchs had appointed over Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah: (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 1:17 Now as for these four youths, God gave them knowledge and skill in all learning and wisdom: and Daniel had understanding in all visions and dreams. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 1:19 The king talked with them; and among them all was found none like Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah: therefore stood they before the king. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 1:21 Daniel continued even to the first year of king Cyrus. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 2:13 So the decree went forth, and the wise men were to be slain; and they sought Daniel and his companions to be slain. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 2:14 Then Daniel returned answer with counsel and prudence to Arioch the captain of the king's guard, who was gone forth to kill the wise men of Babylon; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 2:15 he answered Arioch the king's captain, Why is the decree so urgent from the king? Then Arioch made the thing known to Daniel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 2:16 Daniel went in, and desired of the king that he would appoint him a time, and he would show the king the interpretation. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 2:17 Then Daniel went to his house, and made the thing known to Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, his companions: (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 2:18 that they would desire mercies of the God of heaven concerning this secret; that Daniel and his companions should not perish with the rest of the wise men of Babylon. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Daniel 2:19 Then was the secret revealed to Daniel in a vision of the night. Then Daniel blessed the God of heaven. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 2:20 Daniel answered, Blessed be the name of God forever and ever; for wisdom and might are his. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Daniel 2:24 Therefore Daniel went in to Arioch, whom the king had appointed to destroy the wise men of Babylon; he went and said thus to him: Don't destroy the wise men of Babylon; bring me in before the king, and I will show to the king the interpretation. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 2:25 Then Arioch brought in Daniel before the king in haste, and said thus to him, I have found a man of the children of the captivity of Judah, who will make known to the king the interpretation. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 2:26 The king answered Daniel, whose name was Belteshazzar, Are you able to make known to me the dream which I have seen, and its interpretation? (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 2:27 Daniel answered before the king, and said, The secret which the king has demanded can neither wise men, enchanters, magicians, nor soothsayers, show to the king; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 2:46 Then the king Nebuchadnezzar fell on his face, and worshiped Daniel, and commanded that they should offer an offering and sweet odors to him. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 2:47 The king answered to Daniel, and said, Of a truth your God is the God of gods, and the Lord of kings, and a revealer of secrets, seeing you have been able to reveal this secret. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 2:48 Then the king made Daniel great, and gave him many great gifts, and made him to rule over the whole province of Babylon, and to be chief governor over all the wise men of Babylon. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 2:49 Daniel requested of the king, and he appointed Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, over the affairs of the province of Babylon: but Daniel was in the gate of the king. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 4:8 But at the last Daniel came in before me, whose name was Belteshazzar, according to the name of my god, and in whom is the spirit of the holy gods: and I told the dream before him, saying, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 4:19 Then Daniel, whose name was Belteshazzar, was stricken mute for a while, and his thoughts troubled him. The king answered, Belteshazzar, don't let the dream, or the interpretation, trouble you. Belteshazzar answered, My lord, the dream be to those who hate you, and its interpretation to your adversaries. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 5:12 because an excellent spirit, and knowledge, and understanding, interpreting of dreams, and showing of dark sentences, and dissolving of doubts, were found in the same Daniel, whom the king named Belteshazzar. Now let Daniel be called, and he will show the interpretation. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 5:13 Then was Daniel brought in before the king. The king spoke and said to Daniel, Are you that Daniel, who are of the children of the captivity of Judah, whom the king my father brought out of Judah? (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 5:17 Then Daniel answered before the king, Let your gifts be to yourself, and give your rewards to another; nevertheless I will read the writing to the king, and make known to him the interpretation. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 5:29 Then commanded Belshazzar, and they clothed Daniel with purple, and put a chain of gold about his neck, and made proclamation concerning him, that he should be the third ruler in the kingdom. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 6:2 and over them three presidents, of whom Daniel was one; that these satraps might give account to them, and that the king should have no damage. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 6:3 Then this Daniel was distinguished above the presidents and the satraps, because an excellent spirit was in him; and the king thought to set him over the whole realm. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 6:4 Then the presidents and the satraps sought to find occasion against Daniel as touching the kingdom; but they could find no occasion nor fault, because he was faithful, neither was there any error or fault found in him. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 6:5 Then said these men, We shall not find any occasion against this Daniel, except we find it against him concerning the law of his God. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 6:10 When Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went into his house (now his windows were open in his chamber toward Jerusalem) and he kneeled on his knees three times a day, and prayed, and gave thanks before his God, as he did before. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 6:11 Then these men assembled together, and found Daniel making petition and supplication before his God. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 6:13 Then answered they and said before the king, That Daniel, who is of the children of the captivity of Judah, doesn't respect you, O king, nor the decree that you have signed, but makes his petition three times a day. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 6:14 Then the king, when he heard these words, was sore displeased, and set his heart on Daniel to deliver him; and he labored until the going down of the sun to rescue him. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 6:16 Then the king commanded, and they brought Daniel, and cast him into the den of lions. Now the king spoke and said to Daniel, Your God whom you serve continually, he will deliver you. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 6:17 A stone was brought, and laid on the mouth of the den; and the king sealed it with his own signet, and with the signet of his lords; that nothing might be changed concerning Daniel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 6:20 When he came near to the den to Daniel, he cried with a lamentable voice; the king spoke and said to Daniel, Daniel, servant of the living God, is your God, whom you serve continually, able to deliver you from the lions? (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 6:21 Then said Daniel to the king, O king, live forever. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 6:23 Then was the king exceeding glad, and commanded that they should take Daniel up out of the den. So Daniel was taken up out of the den, and no manner of hurt was found on him, because he had trusted in his God. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 6:24 The king commanded, and they brought those men who had accused Daniel, and they cast them into the den of lions, them, their children, and their wives; and the lions had the mastery of them, and broke all their bones in pieces, before they came to the bottom of the den. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 6:26 I make a decree, that in all the dominion of my kingdom men tremble and fear before the God of Daniel; for he is the living God, and steadfast forever, His kingdom that which shall not be destroyed; and his dominion shall be even to the end. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 6:27 He delivers and rescues, and he works signs and wonders in heaven and in earth, who has delivered Daniel from the power of the lions. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 6:28 So this Daniel prospered in the reign of Darius, and in the reign of Cyrus the Persian. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 7:1 In the first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon Daniel had a dream and visions of his head on his bed: then he wrote the dream and told the sum of the matters. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 7:2 Daniel spoke and said, I saw in my vision by night, and, behold, the four winds of the sky broke forth on the great sea. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 7:15 As for me, Daniel, my spirit was grieved in the midst of my body, and the visions of my head troubled me. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 7:28 Here is the end of the matter. As for me, Daniel, my thoughts much troubled me, and my face was changed in me: but I kept the matter in my heart. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 8:1 In the third year of the reign of king Belshazzar a vision appeared to me, even to me, Daniel, after that which appeared to me at the first. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 8:15 It happened, when I, even I Daniel, had seen the vision, that I sought to understand it; and behold, there stood before me as the appearance of a man. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 8:27 I, Daniel, fainted, and was sick certain days; then I rose up, and did the king's business: and I wondered at the vision, but none understood it. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 9:2 in the first year of his reign I, Daniel, understood by the books the number of the years about which the word of Yahweh came to Jeremiah the prophet, for the accomplishing of the desolations of Jerusalem, even seventy years. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 9:22 He instructed me, and talked with me, and said, Daniel, I am now come forth to give you wisdom and understanding. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 10:1 In the third year of Cyrus king of Persia a thing was revealed to Daniel, whose name was called Belteshazzar; and the thing was true, even a great warfare: and he understood the thing, and had understanding of the vision. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 10:2 In those days I, Daniel, was mourning three whole weeks. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 10:7 I, Daniel, alone saw the vision; for the men who were with me didn't see the vision; but a great quaking fell on them, and they fled to hide themselves. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 10:11 He said to me, Daniel, you man greatly beloved, understand the words that I speak to you, and stand upright; for am I now sent to you. When he had spoken this word to me, I stood trembling. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 10:12 Then said he to me, Don't be afraid, Daniel; for from the first day that you set your heart to understand, and to humble yourself before your God, your words were heard: and I have come for your words' sake. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 12:4 But you, Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end: many shall run back and forth, and knowledge shall be increased." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 12:5 Then I, Daniel, looked, and behold, there stood other two, the one on the brink of the river on this side, and the other on the brink of the river on that side. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 12:9 He said, Go your way, Daniel; for the words are shut up and sealed until the time of the end. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
ThesaurusDaniel (74 Occurrences)...
prophet. His life and prophecies are recorded in the Book of Daniel
was descended from one of the noble families of Judah (Dan. .../d/daniel.htm - 79k
Daniel's (2 Occurrences)
... Multi-Version Concordance Daniel's (2 Occurrences). Daniel 2:49 And at Daniel's
request, the king gave Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed ...
/d/daniel's.htm - 7k
Abednego (14 Occurrences)
... Easton's Bible Dictionary Servant of Nego=Nebo, the Chaldee name given
to Azariah, one of Daniel's three companions (Dan. 2:49). ...
/a/abednego.htm - 13k
Abed-nego (14 Occurrences)
... a-bed'-ne-go (Hebrew and Aramaic `abhedh neghgo; Daniel 3:29, `abhedh negho'):
According to many, the nego is an intentional corruption of Nebo, the name of a ...
/a/abed-nego.htm - 13k
Belteshazzar (8 Occurrences)
... Easton's Bible Dictionary Beltis protect the king!, the Chaldee name given to Daniel
by Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. 1:7). Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia. ...
/b/belteshazzar.htm - 10k
Shadrach (14 Occurrences)
... were no vowels in the original Hebrew or Aramaic, and since "sh" and "m" as well
as "r" and "d" are much alike in the old alphabet in which Daniel was written ...
/s/shadrach.htm - 14k
Abed'nego (14 Occurrences)
...Daniel 1:7 and the chief of the eunuchs setteth names on them, and he setteth on
Daniel, Belteshazzar; and on Hananiah, Shadrach; and on Mishael, Meshach; and ...
/a/abed'nego.htm - 10k
Satraps (12 Occurrences)
... sa'-traps, sat'-raps ('achashdarpenim, Ezra 8:36 Esther 3:12; Esther 8:9; Esther
9:3, the King James Version "lieutenants"; Daniel 3:2, 3, 27; Daniel 6:1;, the ...
/s/satraps.htm - 11k
Belteshaz'zar (8 Occurrences)
...Daniel 1:7 and the chief of the eunuchs setteth names on them, and he setteth on
Daniel, Belteshazzar; and on Hananiah, Shadrach; and on Mishael, Meshach; and ...
/b/belteshaz'zar.htm - 9k
Arioch (6 Occurrences)
... (2) The Arioch of Daniel 2:14, 25 was captain of the bodyguard of King
Nebuchadnezzar. Nothing else is known about him except that ...
/a/arioch.htm - 10k
Greek1158. Daniel -- Daniel, the prophet ...
<< 1157, 1158. Daniel
. 1159 >>. Daniel
, the prophet. Part of Speech: Proper
Noun, Indeclinable Transliteration: Daniel
Phonetic Spelling ... /greek/1158.htm - 6k
Hitchcock's Bible NamesDaniel
judgment of God; God my judge
Smith's Bible DictionaryDaniel
(judgment of God).
- The second son of David, by Abigail the Carmelitess. (1 Chronicles 3:1) In (2 Samuel 3:3) he is called Chileab. (B.C. about 1051.)
- The fourth of the greater prophets." Nothing is known of his parentage or family. He appears, however, to have been of royal or noble descent, (Daniel 1:3) and to have possessed considerable personal endowments. (Daniel 1:4) He was taken to Babylon in "the third year of Jehoiakim" (B.C. 604), and trained for the king's service. He was divinely supported in his resolve to abstain from the "king's meat" for fear of defilement. (Daniel 1:8-16) At the close of his three years discipline, (Daniel 1:5,18) Daniel had an opportunity of exercising his peculiar gift, (Daniel 1:17) of interpreting dreams, on the occasion of Nebuchadnezzar's decree against the Magi. (Daniel 2:14) ff. In consequence of his success he was made "ruler of the whole province of Babylon." (Daniel 2:48) He afterwards interpreted the second dream of Nebuchadnezzar, (Daniel 4:8-27) and the handwriting on the wall which disturbed the feast of Belshazzar. (Daniel 5:10-28) At the accession of Darius he was made first of the "three presidents" of the empire, (Daniel 6:2) and was delivered from the lion's den, into which he had been cast for his faithfulness to the rites of his faith. (Daniel 6:10-23) cf. Bel and Dr. 29-42. At the accession of Cyrus he still retained his prosperity, (Daniel 6:28) cf. Dani 1:21 Though he does not appear to have remained at Babylon, cf. (Daniel 1:21) and in "the third year of Cyrus" (B.C. 534) he saw his last recorded vision, on the banks of the Tigris. (Daniel 10:1,4) In the prophecies of Ezekiel mention is made of Daniel as a pattern of righteousness, (Ezekiel 14:14,20) and wisdom. (Ezekiel 28:3) The narrative in (Daniel 1:11) implies that Daniel was conspicuously distinguished for purity and knowledge at a very early age.
- A descendant of Ithamar, who returned with Ezra. (Ezra 8:2)
- A priest who sealed the covenant drawn up by Nehemiah, B.C. 445. (Nehemiah 10:6) He is perhaps the same as No. 3.
ATS Bible DictionaryDaniel
1. Called Belteshazzar by the Chaldeans, a prophet descended from the royal family of David, who was carried captive to Babylon, when very young, in the fourth year of Jehoiakim king of Judah, B. C. 606. He was chosen, with his three companions, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, to reside at Nebuchadnezzar's court, where he received a suitable education, and made great progress in all the sciences of the Chaldeans, but declined to pollute himself by eating provisions from the king's table, which would often be ceremonially unclean to a Jew, or defiled by some connection with idol-worship. At the end of their three years' education, Daniel and his companions excelled all others, and received honorable appointments in the royal service. Here Daniel soon displayed his prophetic gifts in interpreting a dream of Nebuchadnezzar, by whom he was made governor of Babylon, and head of the learned and priestly class. He seems to have been absent, perhaps on some foreign embassy, when his three companions were cast into the fiery furnace. At a later period he interpreted another dream of Nebuchadnezzar, and afterwards the celebrated vision of Belshazzar-one of whose last works was to promote Daniel to an office much higher than he had previously held during his reign, Daniel 5:29 8:27.
After the capture of Babylon by the Medes and Persians, under Cyaxares and Cyrus, Daniel was continued in all his high employments, and enjoyed the favor of these princes until his death, except at one short interval, when the envy of the other officers prevailed on the king of the other officers prevailed on the king to cast him into the lion's den, an act which recoiled on his foes to their own destruction. During this period he earnestly labored, by fasting and prayer as well as by counsel, to secure the return of the Jews to their own land, the promised time having come, Daniel 9:1-27. He lived to see the decree issued, and many of his people restored; but it is not known that he ever revisited Jerusalem. In the third year of Cyrus, he had a series of visions disclosing the state of the Jews till the coming of the promised Redeemer; and at last we see him calmly awaiting the peaceful close of a well-spent life, and the gracious resurrection of the just. Daniel was one of the most spotless characters upon record. His youth and his age were alike devoted to God. He maintained his integrity in the most difficult circumstances, and amid the fascinations of an eastern court he was pure and upright. He confessed the name of God before idolatrous princes; and would have been a martyr, but for the miracle which rescued him from death. His history deserves the careful and prayerful study of the young, and the lessons that it inculcates are weighty and rich in instruction.
2. The second son of David, also called Chileab, 1 Chronicles 3:1 2 Samuel 3:3.
3. A descendant of Ithamar, the fourth son of Aaron. He was one of the chiefs who accompanied Ezra from Babylon to Judea, and afterwards took a prominent part in the reformation of the people, Ezra 8:2.
International Standard Bible EncyclopediaDANIEL
dan'-yel (daniye'l, dani'-el, "God is my judge"; Daniel):
(1) One of the sons of David (1 Chronicles 3:1).
(2) A Levite of the family of Ithamar (Ezra 8:2 Nehemiah 10:6).
(3) A prophet of the time of Nebuchadnezzar and Cyrus, the hero and author of the Book of Daniel.
1. Early Life:
We know nothing of the early life of Daniel, except what is recorded in the book bearing his name. Here it is said that he was one of the youths of royal or noble seed, who were carried captive by Nebuchadnezzar in the third year of Jehoiakim, king of Judah. These youths were without blemish, well-favored, skillful in all wisdom, endued with knowledge, and understanding science, and such as had ability to stand in the king's palace. The king commanded to teach them the knowledge and tongue of the Chaldeans; and appointed for them a daily portion of the king's food and of the wine which he drank. After having been thus nourished for three years, they were to stand before the king. Ashpenaz, the master or chief of the eunuchs, into whose hands they had been entrusted, following a custom of the time, gave to each of these youths a new and Babylonian name. To Daniel, he gave the name Belteshazzar.
In Babylonian this name was probably Belu-lita-sharri-usur, which means "O Bel, protect thou the hostage of the king," a most appropriate name for one in the place which Daniel occupied as a hostage of Jehoiakim at the court of the king of Babylon. The youths were probably from 12 to 15 years of age at the time when they were carried captive. (For changes of names, compare Joseph changed to Zaphenath-paneah (Genesis 41:45); Eliakim, to Jehoiakim (2 Kings 23:34); Mattaniah, to Zedekiah (2 Kings 24:17); and the two names of the high priest Johanan's brother in the Sachau Papyri, i.e. Ostan and Anani.)
Having purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the food and drink of the king, Daniel requested of Ashpenaz permission to eat vegetables and drink water. Through the favor of God, this request was granted, notwithstanding the fear of Ashpenaz that his head would be endangered to the king on account of the probably resulting poor appearance of the youths living upon this blood-diluting diet, in comparison with the expected healthy appearance of the others of their class. However, ten days' trial having been first granted, and at the end of that time their countenances having been found fairer and their flesh fatter than the other youths', the permission was made permanent; and God gave to Daniel and his companions knowledge and skill in all learning and wisdom, and to Daniel understanding in all visions and dreams; so that at the end of the three years when the king communed with them, he found them much superior to all the magicians and enchanters in every matter of wisdom and understanding.
Daniel's public activities were in harmony with his education. His first appearance was as an interpreter of the dream recorded in Daniel 2. Nebuchadnezzar having seen in his dream a vision of a great image, excellent in brightness and terrible in appearance, its head of fine gold, its breast and its arms of silver, its belly and its thighs of brass, its legs of iron, its feet part of iron and part of clay, beheld a stone cut out without hands smiting the image and breaking it in pieces, until it became like chaff and was carried away by the wind; while the stone that smote the image became a great mountain and filled the whole earth. When the king awoke from his troubled sleep, he forgot, or reigned that he had forgotten, the dream, and summoned the wise men of Babylon both to tell him the dream and to give the interpretation thereof. The wise men having said that they could not tell the dream, nor interpret it as long as it was untold, the king threatened them with death. Daniel, who seems not to have been present when the other wise men were before the king, when he was informed of the threat of the king, and that preparations were being made to slay all of the wise men of Babylon, himself and his three companions included, boldly went in to the king and requested that he would appoint a time for him to appear to show the interpretation, Then he went to his house, and he and his companions prayed, and the dream and its interpretation were made known unto Daniel. At the appointed time, the dream was explained and the four Hebrews were loaded with wealth and given high positions in the service of the king. In the 4th chapter, we have recorded Daniel's interpretation of the dream of Nebuchadnezzar about the great tree that was hewn at the command of an angel, thus prefiguring the insanity of the king.
3. Interpreter of Signs: Daniel's third great appearance in the book is in chapter 5, where he is called upon to explain the extraordinary writing upon the wall of Belshazzar's palace, which foretold the end of the Babylonian empire and the incoming of the Medes and Persians. For this service Daniel was clothed with purple, a chain of gold put around his neck, and he was made the third ruler in the kingdom.
4. Seer of Visions:
Daniel, however, was not merely an interpreter of other men's visions. In the last six chapters we have recorded four or five of his own visions, all of which are taken up with revelations concerning the future history of the great world empires, especially in their relation to the people of God, and predictions of the final triumph of the Messiah's kingdom.
5. Official of the Kings:
In addition to his duties as seer and as interpreter of signs and dreams, Daniel also stood high in the governmental service of Nebuchadnezzar, Belshazzar, and Darius the Mede, and perhaps also of Cyrus. The Book of Dnl, our only reliable source of information on this subject, does not tell us much about his civil duties and performances. It does say, however, that he was chief of the wise men, that he was in the gate of the king, and that he was governor over the whole province of Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar; that Belshazzar made him the third ruler in his kingdom; and that Darius made him one of the three presidents to whom his hundred and twenty satraps were to give account; and that he even thought to set him over his whole kingdom. In all of these positions he seems to have conducted himself with faithfulness and judgment.
While in the service of Darius the Mede, he aroused the antipathy of the other presidents and of the satraps. Unable to find any fault with his official acts, they induced the king to make a decree, apparently general in form and purpose, but really aimed at Daniel alone. They saw that they could find no valid accusation against him, unless they found it in connection with something concerning the law of his God. They therefore caused the king to make a decree that no one should make a request of anyone for the space of thirty days, save of the king. Daniel, having publicly prayed three times a day as he was in the habit of doing, was caught in the act, accused, and on account of the irrevocability of a law of the Medes and Persians, was condemned in accordance with the decree to be cast into a den of lions. The king was much troubled at this, but was unable to withhold the punishment. However, he expressed to Daniel his belief that his God in whom he trusted continually would deliver him; and so indeed it came to pass. For in the morning, when the king drew near to the mouth of the den, and called to him, Daniel said that God had sent His angel and shut the mouths of the lions. So Daniel was taken up unharmed, and at the command of the king his accusers, having been cast into tile den, were destroyed before they reached the bottom.
Besides the commentaries and other works mentioned in the article on the Book of Daniel, valuable information may be found in Josephus and in Payne Smith's Lectures on Daniel.
R. Dick Wilson
DANIEL, BOOK OF
II. PLACE IN THE CANON III. DIVISIONS OF THE BOOK
V. PURPOSE OF THE BOOK
1. The Predictions
2. The Miracles
3. The Text
4. The Language
5. The Historical Statements
Commentaries and Introductions
X. APOCRYPHAL ADDITIONS
The Book of Daniel is rightly so called, whether we consider Daniel as the author of it, or as the principal person mentioned in it.
II. Place in the Canon.
In the English Bible, Daniel is placed among the Major Prophets, immediately after Ezk, thus following the order of the Septuagint and of the Latin Vulgate (Jerome's Bible, 390-405 A.D.) In the Hebrew Bible, however, it is placed in the third division of the Canon, called the Kethuvim or writings, by the Hebrews, and the hagiographa, or holy writings, by the Seventy. It has been claimed, that Daniel was placed by the Jews in the third part of the Canon, either because they thought the inspiration of its author to be of a lower kind than was that of the other prophets, or because the book was written after the second or prophetical part of the Canon had been closed. It is more probable, that the book was placed in this part of the Hebrew Canon, because Daniel is not called a nabhi' ("prophet"), but was rather a chozeh ("seer") and a chakham ("wise man"). None but the works of the nebhi'im were put in the second part of the Jewish Canon, the third being reserved for the heterogeneous works of seers, wise men, and priests, or for those that do not mention the name or work of a prophet, or that are poetical in form. A confusion has arisen, because the Greek word prophet is used to render the two Hebrew words nabhi' and chozeh. In the Scriptures, God is said to speak to the former, whereas the latter see visions and dream dreams. Some have attempted to explain the position of Daniel by assuming that he had the prophetic gift without holding the prophetic office. It must be kept in mind that all reasons given to account for the order and place of many of the books in the Canon are purely conjectural, since we have no historical evidence bearing upon the subject earlier than the time of Jesus ben Sirach, who wrote probably about 180 B.C.
III. Divisions of the Book.
According to its subject-matter, the book falls naturally into two great divisions, each consisting of six chapters, the first portion containing the historical sections, and the second the apocalyptic, or predictive, portions; though the former is not devoid of predictions, nor the latter of historical statements. More specifically, the first chapter is introductory to the whole book; Daniel 2-6 describe some marvelous events in the history of Daniel and his three companions in their relations with the rulers of Babylon; and chapters 7-12 narrate some visions of Daniel concerning the great world-empires, especially in relation to the kingdom of God.
According to the languages in which the book is written, it may be divided into the Aramaic portion, extending from Daniel 2:4 to the end of chapter 7, and a Hebrew portion embracing the rest of the book.
The language of the book is partly Hebrew and partly a dialect of Aramaic, which has been called Chaldee, or Biblical Aramaic This Aramaic is almost exactly the same as that which is found in portions of Ezra. On account of the large number of Babylonian and Persian words characteristic of this Aramaic and of that of the papyri recently found in Egypt, as well as on account of the general similarity of the nominal, verbal and other forms, and of the syntactical construction, the Aramaic of this period might properly be called the Babylonian-Persian Aramaic With the exception of the sign used to denote the sound "dh," and of the use of qoph in a few cases where Daniel has `ayin, the spelling in the papyri is the same in general as that in the Biblical books. Whether the change of spelling was made at a later time in the manuscripts of Daniel, or whether it was a peculiarity of the Babylonian Aramaic as distinguished from the Egyptian or whether it was due to the unifying, scientific genius of Daniel himself, we have no means at present to determine.
In view of the fact that the Elephantine Papyri frequently employ the "d" sign to express the "dh" sound, and that it is always employed in Ezra to express it; in view further of the fact that the "z" sign is found as late as the earliest Nabatean inscription, that of 70 B.C. (see Euting, 349: 1, 2, 4) to express the "dh" sound, it seems fatuous to insist on the ground of the writing of these two sounds in the Book of Daniel, that it cannot have been written in the Persian period. As to the use of qoph and `ayin for the Aramaic sound which corresponds to the Hebrew tsadhe when equivalent to an Arabic dad, any hasty conclusion is debarred by the fact that the Aramaic papyri of the 5th century B.C., the manuscripts of the Samaritan Targum and the Mandaic manuscripts written from 600 to 900 A.D. all employ the two letters to express the one sound. The writing of 'aleph and he without any proper discrimination occurs in the papyri as well as in Daniel.
The only serious objection to the early date of upon the ground of its spelling is that which is based upon the use of a final "n" in the pronominal suffix of the second and third persons masculine plural instead of the margin of the Aramaic papyri and of the Zakir and Sendschirli inscriptions. It is possible that was influenced in this by the corresponding forms of the Babylonian language. The Syriac and Mandaic dialects of the Aramaic agree with the Babylonian in the formation of the pronominal suffixes of the second and third persons masculine plural, as against the Hebrew, Arabic, Minaean, Sabean and Ethiopic. It is possible that the occurrence of "m" in some west Aramaic documents may have arisen through the influence of the Hebrew and Phoenician, and that pure Aramaic always had "n" just as we find it in Assyrian and Babylonian, and in all east Aramaic documents thus far discovered.
The supposition that the use of "y" in Daniel as a preformative of the third person masculine of the imperfect proves a Palestinian provenience has been shown to be untenable by the discovery that the earliest east Syriac also used "y". (See M. Pognon, Inscriptions semitiques, premiere partie, 17.)
This inscription is dated 73 A.D. This proof that in the earlier stages of its history the east Aramaic was in this respect the same as that found in Daniel is confirmed by the fact that the forms of the 3rd person of the imperfect found in the proper names on the Aramaic dockets of the Assyrian inscriptions also have the preformative y. (See Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum, II, 47.)
V. Purpose of the Book.
The book is not intended to give an account of the life of Daniel. It gives neither his lineage, nor his age, and recounts but a few of the events of his long career. Nor is it meant to give a record of the history of Israel during the exile, nor even of the captivity in Babylon. Its purpose is to show how by His providential guidance, His miraculous interventions, His foreknowledge and almighty power, the God of heaven controls and directs the forces of Nature and the history of nations, the lives of Hebrew captives and of the mightiest of the kings of the earth, for the accomplishment of His Divine and beneficent plans for His servants and people.
The unity of the book was first denied by Spinoza, who suggested that the first part was taken from the chronological works of the Chaldeans, basing his supposition upon the difference of language between the former and latter parts. Newton followed Spinoza in suggesting two parts, but began his second division with Daniel 7, where the narrative passes over from the 3rd to the 1st person. Kohler follows Newton, claiming, however, that the visions were written by the Daniel of the exile, but that the first 6 chapters were composed by a later writer who also redacted the whole work. Von Orelli holds that certain prophecies of Daniel were enlarged and interpolated by a Jew living in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, in order to show his contemporaries the bearing of the predictions of the book upon those times of oppression. Zockler and Lange hold to the unity of the book in general; but the former thought that Daniel 11:5-45 is an interpolation; and the latter, that 10:1-11:44 and 12:5-13 have been inserted in the original work. Meinhold holds that the Aramaic portions existed as early as the times of Alexander the Great-a view to which Strack also inclines. Eichhorn held that the book consisted of ten different original sections, which are bound together merely by the circumstance that they are all concerned with Daniel and his three friends. Finally, De Lagarde, believing that the fourth kingdom was the Roman, held that Daniel 7 was written about 69 A.D. (For the best discussion of the controversies about the unity of Daniel, see Eichhorn, Einleitung, sections 612-19, and Buhl in See Hauck-Herzog, Realencyklopadie fur protestantische Theologie und Kirche, IV, 449-51.)
With the exception of the neo-Platonist Porphyry, a Greek non-Christian philosopher of the 3rd century A.D., the genuineness of the Book of was denied by no one until the rise of the deistic movement in the 17th century. The attacks upon the genuineness of the book have been based upon:
(1) the predictions,
(2) the miracles,
(3) the text,
(4) the language,
(5) the historical statements.
1. The Predictions:
The assailants of the genuineness of Daniel on the ground of the predictions found therein, may be divided into two classes-those who deny prediction in general, and those who claim that the apocalyptic character of the predictions of Daniel is a sufficient proof of their lack of genuineness. The first of these two classes includes properly those only who deny not merely Christianity, but theism; and the answering of them may safely be left to those who defend the doctrines of theism, and particularly of revelation. The second class of assailants is, however, of a different character, since it consists of those who are sincere believers in Christianity and predictive prophecy.
They claim, however, that certain characteristics of definiteness and detail, distinguishing the predictive portions of the Book of Daniel from other predictions of the Old Testament, bring the genuineness of Daniel into question. The kind of prediction found here, ordinarily called apocalyptic, is said to have arisen first in the 2nd century B.C., when parts of the Book of Enoch and of the Sibylline Oracles were written; and a main characteristic of an apocalypse is said to be that it records past events as if they were still future, throwing the speaker back into some distant past time, for the purpose of producing on the reader the impression that the book contains real predictions, thus gaining credence for the statements of the writer and giving consolation to those who are thus led to believe in the providential foresight of God for those who trust in Him.
Since those who believe that God has spoken unto man by His Son and through the prophets will not be able to set limits to the extent and definiteness of the revelations which He may have seen fit to make through them, nor to prescribe the method, style, time and character of the revelations, this attack on the genuineness of Daniel may safely be left to the defenders of the possibility and the fact of a revelation. One who believes in these may logically believe in the genuineness of Daniel, as far as this objection goes. That there are spurious apocalypses no more proves that all are spurious than that there are spurious gospels or epistles proves that there are no genuine ones.
The spurious epistles of Philaris do not prove that Cicero's Letters are not genuine; nor do the false statements of 2 Maccabees, nor the many spurious Acts of the Apostles, prove that 1 Maccabees or Luke's Acts of the Apostles is not genuine. Nor does the fact that the oldest portions of the spurious apocalypses which have been preserved to our time are thought to have been written in the 2nd century B.C., prove that no apocalypses, either genuine or spurious, were written before that time. There must have been a beginning, a first apocalypse, at some time, if ever. Besides, if we admit that the earliest parts of the Book of Enoch and of the Sibylline Oracles were written about the middle of the 2nd century B.C., whereas the Book of Esdras was written about 300 A.D., 450 years later, we can see no good literary reason wh Daniel may not have antedated Enoch by 350 years. The period between 500 B.C. and 150 B.C. is so almost entirely devoid of all known Hebrew literary productions as to render it exceedingly precarious for anyone to express an opinion as to what works may have characterized that long space of time.
2. The Miracles:
Secondly, as to the objections made against the Book of Daniel on the ground of the number or character of the miracles recorded, we shall only say that they affect the whole Christian system, which is full of the miraculous from beginning to end. If we begin to reject the books of the Bible because miraculous events are recorded in them, where indeed shall we stop?
3. The Text:
Thirdly, a more serious objection, as far as Daniel itself is concerned, is the claim of Eichhorn that the original text of the Aramaic portion has been so thoroughly tampered with and changed, that we can no longer get at the genuine original composition. We ourselves can see no objection to the belief that these Aramaic portions were written first of all in Hebrew, or even, if you will, in Babylonian; nor to the supposition that some Greek translators modified the meaning in their version either intentionally, or through a misunderstanding of the original. We claim, however, that the composite Aramaic of Daniel agrees in almost every particular of orthography, etymology and syntax, with the Aramaic of the North Semitic inscriptions of the 9th, 8th and 7th centuries B.C. and of the Egyptian papyri of the 5th century B.C., and that the vocabulary of Daniel has an admixture of Hebrew, Babylonian and Persian words similar to that of the papyri of the 5th century B.C.; whereas, it differs in composition from the Aramaic of the Nabateans, which is devoid of Persian, Hebrew, and Babylonian words, and is full of Arabisms, and also from that of the Palmyrenes, which is full of Greek words, while having but one or two Persian words, and no Hebrew or Babylonian. As to different recensions, we meet with a similar difficulty in Jeremiah without anyone's impugning on that account the genuineness of the work as a whole. As to interpolations of verses or sections, they are found in the Samaritan recension of the Hebrew text and in the Samaritan and other Targums, as also in certain places in the text of the New Testament, Josephus and many other ancient literary works, without causing us to disbelieve in the genuineness of the rest of their works, or of the works as a whole.
4. The Language:
Fourthly, the objections to the genuineness of Daniel based on the presence in it of three Greek names of musical instruments and of a number of Persian words do not seem nearly as weighty today as they did a hundred years ago. The Greek inscriptions at Abu Simbal in Upper Egypt dating from the time of Psamtek II in the early part of the 6th century B.C., the discovery of the Minoan inscriptions and ruins in Crete, the revelations of the wide commercial relations of the Phoenicians in the early part of the 1st millennium B.C., the lately published inscriptions of Sennacherib about his campaigns in Cilicia against the Greek seafarers to which Alexander Poly-histor and Abydenus had referred, telling about his having carried many Greeks captive to Nineveh about 700 B.C., the confirmation of the wealth and expensive ceremonies of Nebuchadnezzar made by his own building and other inscriptions, all assure us of the possibility of the use of Greek musical instruments at Babylon in the 6th century B.C. This, taken along with the well-known fact that names of articles of commerce and especially of musical instruments go with the thing, leave no room to doubt that a writer of the 6th century B.C. may have known and used borrowed Greek terms. The Arameans being the great commercial middlemen between Egypt and Greece on the one hand and Babylon and the Orient on the other, and being in addition a subject people, would naturally adopt many foreign words into their vocabulary.
As to the presence of the so-called Persian words in Daniel, it must be remembered that many words which were formerly considered to be such have been found to be Babylonian. As to the others, perhaps all of them may be Median rather than Persian; and if so, the children of Israel who were carried captive to the cities of the Medes in the middle of the 8th century B.C., and the, Arameans, many of whom were subject to the Medes, at least from the time of the fall of Nineveh about 607 B.C., may well have adopted many words into their vocabulary from the language of their rulers. Daniel was not writing merely for the Jews who had been carried captive by Nebuchadnezzar, but for all Israelites throughout the world. Hence, he would properly use a language which his scattered readers would understand rather than the purer idiom of Judea. Most of his foreign terms are names of officials, legal terms, and articles of clothing, for which there were no suitable terms existing in the earlier Hebrew or Aramaic There was nothing for a writer to do but to invent new terms, or to transfer the current foreign words into his native language. The latter was the preferable method and the one which he adopted.
5. The Historical Statements:
Fifthly, objections to the genuineness of the Book of Daniel are made on the ground of the historical misstatements which are said to be found in it. These may be classed as:
(2) geographical, and
(1) Chronological Objections.
The first chronological objection is derived from Daniel 1:1, where it is said that Nebuchadnezzar made an expedition against Jerusalem in the 3rd year of Jehoiakim, whereas Jeremiah seems to imply that the expedition was made in the 4th year of that king. As Daniel was writing primarily for the Jews of Babylon, he would naturally use the system of dating that was employed there; and this system differed in its method of denoting the 1st year of a reign from that used by the Egyptians and by the Jews of Jerusalem for whom Jeremiah wrote.
The second objection is derived from the fact that Daniel is said (Daniel 1:21) to have lived unto the 1st year of Cyrus the king, whereas in Daniel 10:1 he is said to have seen a vision in the 3rd year of Cyrus, king of Persia. These statements are easily reconciled by supposing that in the former case it is the 1st year of Cyrus as king of Babylon, and in the second, the 3rd year of Cyrus as king of Persia.
The third chronological objection is based on Daniel 6:28, where it is said that Daniel prospered in the kingdom of Darius and in the kingdom of Cyrus the Persian. This statement is harmonized with the facts revealed by the monuments and with the statements of the book itself by supposing that Darius reigned synchronously with Cyrus, but as sub-king under him.
The fourth objection is based on Daniel 8:1, where Daniel is said to have seen a vision in the third year of Belshazzar the king. If we suppose that Belshazzar was king of the Chaldeans while his father was king of Babylon, just as Cambyses was king of Babylon while his father, Cyrus, was king of the lands, or as Nabonidus II seems to have been king of Harran while his father, Nabonidus I, was king of Babylon, this statement will harmonize with the other statements made with regard to Belshazzar.
(2) Geographical Objections.
As to the geographical objections, three only need be considered as important. The first is, that Shushan seems to be spoken of in Daniel 7:2 as subject to Babylon, whereas it is supposed by some to have been at that time subject to Media. Here we can safely rest upon the opinion of Winckler, that at the division of the Assyrian dominions among the allied Medes and Babylonians, Elam became subject to Babylon rather than to Media. If, however, this opinion could be shown not to be true, we must remember that Daniel is said to have been at ShuShan in a vision. The second geographical objection is based on the supposition that Nebuchadnezzar would not have gone against Jerusalem, leaving an Egyptian garrison at Carchemish in his rear, thus endangering his line of communication and a possible retreat to Babylon. This objection has no weight, now that the position of Carchemish has been shown to be, not at Ciressium, as formerly conjectured, but at Jirabis, 150 miles farther up the Euphrates. Carchemish would have cut off a retreat to Nineveh, but was far removed from the direct line of communication with Babylon. The third geographical objection is derived from the statement that Darius placed 120 satraps in, or over, all his kingdom. The objection rests upon a false conception of the meaning of satrap and of the extent of a satrapy, there being no reason why a sub-king under Darius may not have had as many satraps under him as Sargon of Assyria had governors and deputies under him; and the latter king mentions 117 peoples and countries over which he appointed his deputies to rule in his place.
(3) Other Objections.
Various other objections to the genuineness of Daniel have been made, the principal being those derived from the supposed non-existence of Kings Darius the Mede and Belshazzar the Chaldean, from the use of the word Chaldean to denote the wise men of Babylon, and from the silence of other historical sources as to many of the events recorded in Daniel. The discussion of the existence of Belshazzar and Darius the Mede will be found under BELSHAZZAR and DARIUS. As to the argument from silence in general, it may be said that it reduces itself in fact to the absence of all reference to Daniel on the monuments, in the Book of Ecclus, and in the post-exilic literature. As to the latter books it proves too much; for Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, as well as Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther, refer to so few of the older canonical books and earlier historical persons and events, that it is not fair to expect them to refer to Daniel-at least, to use their not referring to him or his book as an argument against the existence of either before the time when they were written.
As to Ecclesiasticus, we might have expected him to mention Daniel or the So of Three Children; but who knows what reasons Ben Sira may have had for not placing them in his list of Hebrew heroes? Perhaps, since he held the views which later characterized the Sadducees, he may have passed Daniel by because of his views on the resurrection and on angels. Perhaps he failed to mention any of the four companions because none of their deeds had been wrought in Palestine; or because their deeds exalted too highly the heathen monarchies to which the Jews were subject. Or, more likely, the book may have been unknown to him, since very few copies at best of the whole Old Testament can have existed in his time, and the Book of Daniel may not have gained general currency in Palestine before it was made so preeminent by the fulfillment of its predictions in the Maccabean times.
It is not satisfactory to say that Ben Sira did not mention Daniel and his companions, because the stories concerning them had not yet been imbedded in a canonical book, inasmuch as he does place Simon, the high priest, among the greatest of Israel's great men, although he is not mentioned in any canonical book. In conclusion, it may be said, that while it is impossible for us to determine why Ben Sira does not mention Daniel and his three companions among his worthies, if their deeds were known to him, it is even more impossible to understand how these stories concerning them cannot merely have arisen but have been accepted as true, between 180 B.C., when Ecclesiasticus is thought to have been written, and 169 B.C., when, according to 1 Maccabees, Matthias, the first of the Asmoneans, exhorted his brethren to follow the example of the fortitude of Ananias and his friends. As to the absence of all mention of Daniel on the contemporary historical documents of Babylon and Persia, such mention is not to be expected, inasmuch as those documents give the names of none who occupied positions such as, or similar to, those which Daniel is said to have filled.
Questions of the interpretation of particular passages may be looked for in the commentaries and special works. As to the general question of the kind of prophecy found in the Book of Daniel, it has already been discussed above under the caption of "Genuineness." As to the interpretation of the world monarchies which precede the monarchy of the Messiah Prince, it may be said, however, that the latest discoveries, ruling out as they do a separate Median empire that included Babylon, support the view that the four monarchies are the Babylonian, the Persian, the Greek, and the Roman. According to this view, Darius the Mede was only a sub-king under Cyrus the Persian. Other interpretations have been made by selecting the four empires from those of Assyria, Babylonia, Media, Persia, Medo-Persia, Alexander, the Seleucids, the Romans, and the Mohammedans. The first and the last of these have generally been excluded from serious consideration. The main dispute is as to whether the 4th empire was that of the Seleucids, or that of the Romans, the former view being held commonly by those who hold to the composition of in the 2nd century B.C., and the latter by those who hold to the traditional view that it was written in the 6th century B.C.
It is universally admitted that the teachings of Daniel with regard to angels and the resurrection are more explicit than those found elsewhere in the Old Testament. As to angels, Daniel attributes to them names, ranks, and functions not mentioned by others. It has become common in certain quarters to assert that these peculiarities of Daniel are due to Persian influences. The Babylonian monuments, however, have revealed the fact that the Babylonians believed in both good and evil spirits with names, ranks, and different functions. These spirits correspond in several respects to the Hebrew angels, and may well have afforded Daniel the background for his visions. Yet, in all such matters, it must be remembered that Daniel purports to give us a vision, or revelation; and a revelation cannot be bound by the ordinary laws of time and human influence.
As to the doctrine of the resurrection, it is generally admitted that Daniel adds some new and distinct features to that which is taught in the other canonical books of the Old Testament. But it will be noted that he does not dwell upon this doctrine, since he mentions it only in Daniel 12:2. The materials for his doctrine are to be found in Isaiah 26:14, 21 and 66:24; Ezekiel 37:1-14, and in Job 14:12; Job 19:25 Hosea 6:2 1 Kings 17:4; 2 Kings 4 2 Kings 8:1-5, as well as in the use of the words for sleep and awakening from sleep, or from the dust, for everlasting life or everlasting contempt in Isaiah 26:19 Psalm 76:6; Psalm 13:3; Psalm 127:2 Deuteronomy 31:16 2 Samuel 7:12; 1 Kings 1:21 Job 7:21, and Jeremiah 20:11; Jeremiah 23:40. The essential ideas and phraseology of Daniel's teachings are found in Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel. The first two parts of the books of Enoch and 2 Maccabees make much of the resurrection; but on the other hand, Ecclesiastes seems to believe not even in the immortality of the soul, and Wisdom and 1 Maccabees do not mention a resurrection of the body. That the post-exilic prophets do not mention a resurrection does not prove that they knew nothing about Daniel any more than it proves that they knew nothing about Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel.
There are resemblances, it is true, between the teachings of Daniel with regard to the resurrection and those of the Avesta. But so are there between his doctrines and the ideas of the Egyptians, which had existed for millenniums before his time. Besides there is no proof of any derivation of doctrines from the Persians by the writers of the canonical books of the Jews; and, as we have seen above, both the ideas and verbiage of Daniel are to be found in the generally accepted early Hebrew literature. And finally, this attempt to find a natural origin for all Biblical ideas leaves out of sight the fact that the Scriptures contain revelations from God, which transcend the ordinary course of human development. To a Christian, therefore, there can be no reason for believing that the doctrines of Daniel may not have been promulgated in the 6th century B.C.
Commentaries and Introductions:
The best commentaries on Daniel from a conservative point of view are those by Calvin, Moses Stuart, Keil, Zockler, Strong in Lange's Bibelwerk, Fuller in the Speaker's Commentary, Thomson in the Pulpit Commentary, and Wright, Daniel and His Critics. The best defenses of Daniel's authenticity and genuineness are Hengstenberg, Authenticity of the Book of Daniel, Tregelles, Defense of the Authenticity, Auberlen, The Prophecies of Daniel, Fuller, Essay on the Authenticity of Daniel, Pusey, Daniel the Prophet (still the best of all), C. H. H. Wright, Daniel and His Critics, Kennedy, The Book of Daniel from the Christian Standpoint, Joseph Wilson, Daniel, and Sir Robert Anderson, Daniel in the Critics' Den. One should consult also Pinches, The Old Testament in the Light of the Historical Records of Assyria and Babylonia, Clay, Light on the Old Testament from Babel, and Orr, The Problem of the Old Testament. For English readers, the radical school is best represented by Driver in his Literature of the Old Testament and in his Daniel; by Bevan, The Book of Daniel; by Prince, Commentary on Daniel, and by Cornill in his Introduction to the Old Testament.
X. Apocryphal Additions.
In the Greek translations of Daniel three or four pieces are added which are not found in the original Hebrew or Aramaic text as it has come down to us.
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Easton's Bible Dictionary
God is my judge, or judge of God.
(1.) David's second son, "born unto him in Hebron, of Abigail the Carmelitess" (1 Chronicles 3:1). He is called also Chileab (2 Samuel 3:3).
(2.) One of the four great prophets, although he is not once spoken of in the Old Testament as a prophet. His life and prophecies are recorded in the Book of Daniel. He was descended from one of the noble families of Judah (Dan. 1:3), and was probably born in Jerusalem about B.C. 623, during the reign of Josiah. At the first deportation of the Jews by Nebuchadnezzar (the kingdom of Israel had come to an end nearly a century before), or immediately after his victory over the Egyptians at the second battle of Carchemish, in the fourth year of the reign of Jehoiakim (B.C. 606), Daniel and other three noble youths were carried off to Babylon, along with part of the vessels of the temple. There he was obliged to enter into the service of the king of Babylon, and in accordance with the custom of the age received the Chaldean name of Belteshazzar, i.e., "prince of Bel," or "Bel protect the king!" His residence in Babylon was very probably in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar, now identified with a mass of shapeless mounds called the Kasr, on the right bank of the river.
His training in the schools of the wise men in Babylon (Dan. 1:4) was to fit him for service to the empire. He was distinguished during this period for his piety and his stict observance of the Mosaic law (1:8-16), and gained the confidence and esteem of those who were over him. His habit of attention gained during his education in Jerusalem enabled him soon to master the wisdom and learning of the Chaldeans, and even to excel his compeers.
At the close of his three years of discipline and training in the royal schools, Daniel was distinguished for his proficiency in the "wisdom" of his day, and was brought out into public life. He soon became known for his skill in the interpretation of dreams (1:17; 2:14), and rose to the rank of governor of the province of Babylon, and became "chief of the governors" (Chald. Rab-signin) over all the wise men of Babylon. He made known and also interpreted Nebuchadnezzar's dream; and many years afterwards, when he was now an old man, amid the alarm and consternation of the terrible night of Belshazzar's impious feast, he was called in at the instance of the queen-mother (perhaps Nitocris, the daughter of Nebuchadnezzar) to interpret the mysterious handwriting on the wall. He was rewarded with a purple robe and elevation to the rank of "third ruler." The place of "second ruler" was held by Belshazzar as associated with his father, Nabonidus, on the throne (5:16). Daniel interpreted the handwriting, and "in that night was Belshazzar the king of the Chaldeans slain."
After the taking of Babylon, Cyrus, who was now master of all Asia from India to the Dardanelles, placed Darius (q.v.), a Median prince, on the throne, during the two years of whose reign Daniel held the office of first of the "three presidents" of the empire, and was thus practically at the head of affairs, no doubt interesting himself in the prospects of the captive Jews (Dan. 9), whom he had at last the happiness of seeing restored to their own land, although he did not return with them, but remained still in Babylon. His fidelity to God exposed him to persecution, and he was cast into a den of lions, but was miraculously delivered; after which Darius issued a decree enjoining reverence for "the God of Daniel" (6:26). He "prospered in the reign of Darius, and in the reign of Cyrus the Persian," whom he probably greatly influenced in the matter of the decree which put an end to the Captivity (B.C. 536).
He had a series of prophetic visions vouch-safed to him which opened up the prospect of a glorious future for the people of God, and must have imparted peace and gladness to his spirit in his old age as he waited on at his post till the "end of the days." The time and circumstances of his death are not recorded. He probably died at Susa, about eighty-five years of age.
Ezekiel, with whom he was contemporary, mentions him as a pattern of righteousness (14:14, 20) and wisdom (28:3). (see NEBUCHADNEZZAR.)
Daniel, Book of
Is ranked by the Jews in that division of their Bible called the Hagiographa (Hebrews Khethubim). (see BIBLE.) It consists of two distinct parts. The first part, consisting of the first six chapters, is chiefly historical; and the second part, consisting of the remaining six chapters, is chiefly prophetical.
The historical part of the book treats of the period of the Captivity. Daniel is "the historian of the Captivity, the writer who alone furnishes any series of events for that dark and dismal period during which the harp of Israel hung on the trees that grew by the Euphrates. His narrative may be said in general to intervene between Kings and Chronicles on the one hand and Ezra on the other, or (more strictly) to fill out the sketch which the author of the Chronicles gives in a single verse in his last chapter: `And them that had escaped from the sword carried he [i.e., Nebuchadnezzar] away to Babylon; where they were servants to him and his sons until the reign of the kingdom of Persia'" (2 Chronicles 36:20).
The prophetical part consists of three visions and one lengthened prophetical communication.
The genuineness of this book has been much disputed, but the arguments in its favour fully establish its claims.
(1.) We have the testimony of Christ (Matthew 24:15; 25:31; 26:64) and his apostles (1 Corinthians 6:2; 2 Thessalonians 2:3) for its authority; and (2) the important testimony of Ezekiel (14:14, 20; 28:3).
(3.) The character and records of the book are also entirely in harmony with the times and circumstances in which the author lived.
(4.) The linguistic character of the book is, moreover, just such as might be expected. Certain portions (Dan. 2:4; 7) are written in the Chaldee language; and the portions written in Hebrew are in a style and form having a close affinity with the later books of the Old Testament, especially with that of Ezra. The writer is familiar both with the Hebrew and the Chaldee, passing from the one to the other just as his subject required. This is in strict accordance with the position of the author and of the people for whom his book was written. That Daniel is the writer of this book is also testified to in the book itself (7:1, 28; 8:2; 9:2; 10:1, 2; 12:4, 5). (see BELSHAZZAR.)
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
) A Hebrew prophet distinguished for sagacity and ripeness of judgment in youth; hence, a sagacious and upright judge.
Strong's Hebrew5664. Abed Nego -- "servant of Nebo," Bab. name of one of Daniel's ......
"servant of Nebo," Bab. name of one of Daniel's
companions. Transliteration: Abed
Nego Phonetic Spelling: (ab-ade' neg-o') Short Definition: Abed-nego. ... /hebrew/5664.htm - 6k
5839. Azaryah -- one of Daniel's companions
... << 5838, 5839. Azaryah. 5840 >>. one of Daniel's companions. Transliteration: Azaryah
Phonetic Spelling: (az-ar-yaw') Short Definition: Azariah. ...
/hebrew/5839.htm - 6k
7714. Shadrak -- Bab. name of one of Daniel's companions
... << 7713, 7714. Shadrak. 7715 >>. Bab. name of one of Daniel's companions.
Transliteration: Shadrak Phonetic Spelling: (shad-rak') Short Definition: Shadrach. ...
/hebrew/7714.htm - 6k
1095. Belteshatstsar -- Bab. name of Daniel
... Belteshatstsar. 1096 >>. Bab. name of Daniel. Transliteration: Belteshatstsar Phonetic
Spelling: (bale-tesh-ats-tsar') Short Definition: Belteshazzar. ...
/hebrew/1095.htm - 6k
1096. Belteshatstsar -- Bab. name of Daniel
... Belteshatstsar. 1097 >>. Bab. name of Daniel. Transliteration: Belteshatstsar Phonetic
Spelling: (bale-tesh-ats-tsar') Short Definition: Belteshazzar. ...
/hebrew/1096.htm - 6k
5665. Abed Nego -- "servant of Nebo," Bab. name of one of Daniel's ...
... "servant of Nebo," Bab. name of one of Daniel's companions. Transliteration: Abed
Nego Phonetic Spelling: (ab-ade' neg-o') Short Definition: Abed-nego. ...
/hebrew/5665.htm - 6k
7715. Shadrak -- Bab. name of one of Daniel's companions
... << 7714, 7715. Shadrak. 7716 >>. Bab. name of one of Daniel's companions.
Transliteration: Shadrak Phonetic Spelling: (shad-rak') Short Definition: Shadrach. ...
/hebrew/7715.htm - 6k
4333. Mishael -- "Who is what God is?" a companion of Daniel.
... "Who is what God is?" a companion of Daniel. ... Word Origin (Aramaic) corresponding
to Mishael Definition "Who is what God is?" a companion of Daniel. Mishael ...
/hebrew/4333.htm - 6k
1840. Daniyyel -- "God is my judge," the name of several ...
Daniyyel or Daniel. << 1839, 1840. Daniyyel or Daniel. 1841 >>. "God is my judge,"
the name of several Israelites. Transliteration: Daniyyel ...
/hebrew/1840.htm - 6k
1841. Daniyyel -- "God is my judge," an Israelite leader in ...
... Daniyyel. 1842 >>. "God is my judge," an Israelite leader in Babylon. Transliteration:
Daniyyel Phonetic Spelling: (daw-nee-yale') Short Definition: Daniel. ... Daniel ...
/hebrew/1841.htm - 6k
Daniel: A Descendant of Ithamar, and a Companion of Ezra
Daniel: A Jewish Captive, Also Called Belteshazzar: Abstinence of
Daniel: A Jewish Captive, Also Called Belteshazzar: Conspiracy Against, Cast Into the Lions' Den
Daniel: A Jewish Captive, Also Called Belteshazzar: Courage and Fidelity of
Daniel: A Jewish Captive, Also Called Belteshazzar: Devoutness of
Daniel: A Jewish Captive, Also Called Belteshazzar: Educated at King's Court
Daniel: A Jewish Captive, Also Called Belteshazzar: Interprets Visions
Daniel: A Jewish Captive, Also Called Belteshazzar: Promotion and Executive Authority of
Daniel: A Jewish Captive, Also Called Belteshazzar: Prophecies of
Daniel: A Jewish Captive, Also Called Belteshazzar: Wisdom of
Daniel: A Jewish Captive, Also Called Belteshazzar: Worshiped by Nebuchadnezzar
Daniel: David's Son: Also Called Chileab
Daniel's (2 Occurrences)
Abednego (14 Occurrences)
Abed-nego (14 Occurrences)
Belteshazzar (8 Occurrences)
Shadrach (14 Occurrences)
Abed'nego (14 Occurrences)
Satraps (12 Occurrences)
Belteshaz'zar (8 Occurrences)
Arioch (6 Occurrences)
Alarmed (28 Occurrences)
Surpassing (21 Occurrences)
Belshazzar (8 Occurrences)
Blazing (27 Occurrences)
Sawest (20 Occurrences)
Servest (3 Occurrences)
Sovereignty (14 Occurrences)
Azari'ah (46 Occurrences)
Counselors (21 Occurrences)
Counsellors (21 Occurrences)
Pale (16 Occurrences)
Visions (43 Occurrences)
Susanna (1 Occurrence)
Advisers (22 Occurrences)
Presidents (5 Occurrences)
Belshaz'zar (8 Occurrences)
Body (562 Occurrences)
Commissioners (7 Occurrences)
Administrators (7 Occurrences)
Ar'i-och (4 Occurrences)
Astrologers (9 Occurrences)
Soothsayers (16 Occurrences)
Signed (8 Occurrences)
Accusation (25 Occurrences)
Affairs (27 Occurrences)
Stamped (27 Occurrences)
Prince (160 Occurrences)
Astonied (12 Occurrences)
Pained (41 Occurrences)
Youths (28 Occurrences)
Persia (30 Occurrences)
Petitions (24 Occurrences)
Pertains (14 Occurrences)
Promoted (9 Occurrences)
Psaltery (17 Occurrences)
Pretext (11 Occurrences)
Possessing (18 Occurrences)
Prays (14 Occurrences)
Beauteous (15 Occurrences)
Cornet (8 Occurrences)
Appalment (10 Occurrences)
Administration (12 Occurrences)
Affright (10 Occurrences)
Statue (15 Occurrences)
Affrighted (60 Occurrences)
Concerns (20 Occurrences)
Constantly (47 Occurrences)
Shewing (23 Occurrences)
Captain (167 Occurrences)
Colour (22 Occurrences)
Arts (48 Occurrences)
Petition (33 Occurrences)
Concubines (18 Occurrences)
Belongeth (36 Occurrences)
Breeches (6 Occurrences)
Anguished (3 Occurrences)
Secrets (26 Occurrences)
Pipe (13 Occurrences)
Bracelet (5 Occurrences)
Attitudes (1 Occurrence)
Antichrist (4 Occurrences)
Chain (21 Occurrences)
Complaint (29 Occurrences)
Sentence (53 Occurrences)
Action (21 Occurrences)
Companions (58 Occurrences)
Appalled (31 Occurrences)