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Golden (86 Occurrences)

Hebrews 9:4 having a golden altar of incense, and the ark of the covenant overlaid on all sides with gold, in which was a golden pot holding the manna, Aaron's rod that budded, and the tablets of the covenant; (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Revelation 1:12 I turned to see the voice that spoke with me. Having turned, I saw seven golden lampstands. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Revelation 1:13 And among the lampstands was one like a son of man, clothed with a robe reaching down to his feet, and with a golden sash around his chest. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Revelation 1:20 the mystery of the seven stars which you saw in my right hand, and the seven golden lampstands. The seven stars are the angels of the seven assemblies. The seven lampstands are seven assemblies. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Revelation 2:1 "To the angel of the assembly in Ephesus write: "He who holds the seven stars in his right hand, he who walks among the seven golden lampstands says these things: (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Revelation 5:8 Now when he had taken the book, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, each one having a harp, and golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of the saints. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Revelation 8:3 Another angel came and stood over the altar, having a golden censer. Much incense was given to him, that he should add it to the prayers of all the saints on the golden altar which was before the throne. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Revelation 9:7 The shapes of the locusts were like horses prepared for war. On their heads were something like golden crowns, and their faces were like people's faces. (WEB)

Revelation 9:13 The sixth angel sounded. I heard a voice from the horns of the golden altar which is before God, (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)

Revelation 9:20 And the rest of men who were not killed with these plagues repented not of the works of their hands, that they should not worship demons, and the golden and silver and brazen and stone and wooden idols, which can neither see nor hear nor walk. (DBY)

Revelation 14:14 I looked, and behold, a white cloud; and on the cloud one sitting like a son of man, having on his head a golden crown, and in his hand a sharp sickle. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Revelation 15:6 The seven angels who had the seven plagues came out, clothed with pure, bright linen, and wearing golden sashes around their breasts. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Revelation 15:7 One of the four living creatures gave to the seven angels seven golden bowls full of the wrath of God, who lives forever and ever. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Revelation 17:4 The woman was dressed in purple and scarlet, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having in her hand a golden cup full of abominations and the impurities of the sexual immorality of the earth. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)

Revelation 21:15 He who spoke with me had for a measure, a golden reed, to measure the city, its gates, and its walls. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT)

Genesis 24:22 It happened, as the camels had done drinking, that the man took a golden ring of half a shekel weight, and two bracelets for her hands of ten shekels weight of gold, (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT)

Exodus 25:25 You shall make a rim of a handbreadth around it. You shall make a golden molding on its rim around it. (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS)

Exodus 28:34 a golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate, around the hem of the robe. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV)

Exodus 30:4 You shall make two golden rings for it under its molding; on its two ribs, on its two sides you shall make them; and they shall be for places for poles with which to bear it. (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS RSV)

Exodus 32:2 Aaron said to them, "Take off the golden rings, which are in the ears of your wives, of your sons, and of your daughters, and bring them to me." (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS)

Exodus 32:3 All the people took off the golden rings which were in their ears, and brought them to Aaron. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS)

Exodus 35:22 And they come in -- the men with the women -- every willing-hearted one -- they have brought in nose-ring, and ear-ring, and seal-ring, and necklace, all golden goods, even every one who hath waved a wave-offering of gold to Jehovah. (YLT)

Exodus 37:12 He made a border of a handbreadth around it, and made a golden molding on its border around it. (WEB JPS ASV)

Exodus 37:27 He made two golden rings for it under its molding crown, on its two ribs, on its two sides, for places for poles with which to carry it. (WEB JPS ASV NAS)

Exodus 39:38 the golden altar, the anointing oil, the sweet incense, the screen for the door of the Tent, (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV)

Exodus 40:5 You shall set the golden altar for incense before the ark of the testimony, and put the screen of the door to the tabernacle. (WEB JPS ASV DBY YLT RSV)

Exodus 40:26 He put the golden altar in the Tent of Meeting before the veil; (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV)

Leviticus 8:9 He set the turban on his head; and on the turban, in front, he set the golden plate, the holy crown; as Yahweh commanded Moses. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Numbers 4:11 "On the golden altar they shall spread a blue cloth, and cover it with a covering of sealskin, and shall put in its poles. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Numbers 7:14 one golden ladle of ten shekels, full of incense; (WEB JPS ASV YLT RSV)

Numbers 7:20 one golden ladle of ten shekels, full of incense; (WEB JPS ASV YLT RSV)

Numbers 7:26 one golden ladle of ten shekels, full of incense; (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT RSV)

Numbers 7:32 one golden ladle of ten shekels, full of incense; (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT RSV)

Numbers 7:38 one golden ladle of ten shekels, full of incense; (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT RSV)

Numbers 7:44 one golden ladle of ten shekels, full of incense; (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT RSV)

Numbers 7:50 one golden ladle of ten shekels, full of incense; (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT RSV)

Numbers 7:56 one golden ladle of ten shekels, full of incense; (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT RSV)

Numbers 7:62 one golden ladle of ten shekels, full of incense; (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT RSV)

Numbers 7:68 one golden ladle of ten shekels, full of incense; (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT RSV)

Numbers 7:74 one golden ladle of ten shekels, full of incense; (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT RSV)

Numbers 7:80 one golden spoon of ten shekels, full of incense; (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT RSV)

Numbers 7:84 This was the dedication of the altar, on the day when it was anointed, by the princes of Israel: twelve silver platters, twelve silver bowls, twelve golden ladles; (WEB JPS ASV YLT RSV)

Numbers 7:86 the twelve golden ladles, full of incense, weighing ten shekels apiece, after the shekel of the sanctuary; all the gold of the ladles weighed one hundred twenty shekels; (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV)

Joshua 7:21 I saw among the spoils a beautiful mantle of Shinar, and two hundred shekels of silver, and a golden bar of fifty shekels weight, and I coveted them and took them; and behold, they are hid in the earth in the midst of my tent, and the silver under it. (DBY)

Judges 8:24 Gideon said to them, "I would make a request of you, that you would give me every man the earrings of his spoil." (For they had golden earrings, because they were Ishmaelites.) (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS RSV)

Judges 8:26 The weight of the golden earrings that he requested was one thousand and seven hundred shekels of gold, besides the crescents, and the pendants, and the purple clothing that was on the kings of Midian, and besides the chains that were about their camels' necks. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS RSV)

1 Samuel 6:4 Then they said, "What shall be the trespass offering which we shall return to him?" They said, "Five golden tumors, and five golden mice, according to the number of the lords of the Philistines; for one plague was on you all, and on your lords. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

1 Samuel 6:8 and take the ark of Jehovah, and lay it upon the cart, and the golden jewels, which ye return him as a trespass-offering, put in the coffer by the side thereof; and send it away that it may go. (DBY)

1 Samuel 6:11 And they laid the ark of Jehovah upon the cart, and the coffer with the golden mice and the images of their sores. (DBY YLT NAS RSV)

1 Samuel 6:15 And the Levites took down the ark of Jehovah, and the coffer that was with it, in which were the golden jewels, and put them on the great stone; and the men of Beth-shemesh offered up burnt-offerings and sacrificed sacrifices the same day to Jehovah. (DBY RSV)

1 Samuel 6:17 These are the golden tumors which the Philistines returned for a trespass offering to Yahweh: for Ashdod one, for Gaza one, for Ashkelon one, for Gath one, for Ekron one; (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

1 Samuel 6:18 and the golden mice, according to the number of all the cities of the Philistines belonging to the five lords, both of fortified cities and of country villages, even to the great stone, whereon they set down the ark of Yahweh, which stone remains to this day in the field of Joshua of Beth Shemesh. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

1 Kings 7:48 Solomon made all the vessels that were in the house of Yahweh: the golden altar, and the table whereupon the show bread was, of gold; (WEB JPS ASV DBY NAS RSV NIV)

1 Kings 12:28 Whereupon the king took counsel, and made two calves of gold; and he said unto them: 'Ye have gone up long enough to Jerusalem; behold thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.' (See NAS NIV)

2 Kings 10:29 However from the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, with which he made Israel to sin, Jehu didn't depart from after them, to wit, the golden calves that were in Bethel, and that were in Dan. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)

1 Chronicles 28:15 and the weight of the golden candlesticks, and of their golden lamps, by weight for every candlestick, and for its lamps; and for the silver candlesticks, by weight, for the candlestick and for its lamps, according to the use of every candlestick; (DBY NAS RSV)

1 Chronicles 28:17 and the forks, and the basins, and the cups, of pure gold; and for the golden bowls by weight for every bowl; and for the silver bowls by weight for every bowl; (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV)

1 Chronicles 28:18 and for the altar of incense refined gold by weight; and gold for the pattern of the chariot, even the cherubim, that spread out their wings, and covered the ark of the covenant of the LORD. (See RSV)

2 Chronicles 4:7 And he made the ten candlesticks of gold according to the ordinance concerning them; and he set them in the temple, five on the right hand, and five on the left. (See NAS RSV)

2 Chronicles 4:8 And he made ten tables, and placed them in the temple, five on the right hand and five on the left. And he made a hundred golden bowls. (DBY NAS)

2 Chronicles 4:19 Solomon made all the vessels that were in the house of God, the golden altar also, and the tables with the show bread on them; (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 12:9 So Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem, and took away the treasures of the house of the LORD, and the treasures of the king's house; he took all away; he took away also the shields of gold which Solomon had made. (See NAS)

2 Chronicles 13:8 Now you think to withstand the kingdom of Yahweh in the hand of the sons of David; and you are a great multitude, and there are with you the golden calves which Jeroboam made you for gods. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 13:11 and they burn unto the LORD every morning and every evening burnt-offerings and sweet incense; the showbread also set they in order upon the pure table; and the candlestick of gold with the lamps thereof, to burn every evening; for we keep the charge of the LORD our God; but ye have forsaken Him. (See NAS RSV)

Ezra 6:5 And also let the golden and silver vessels of the house of God, which Nebuchadnezzar took forth out of the temple which is at Jerusalem, and brought unto Babylon, be restored, and brought again unto the temple which is at Jerusalem, every one to his place, and place them in the house of God. (KJV DBY WBS)

Esther 1:7 They gave them drinks in golden vessels of various kinds, including royal wine in abundance, according to the bounty of the king. (WEB NAS RSV)

Esther 4:11 "All the king's servants, and the people of the king's provinces, know, that whoever, whether man or woman, comes to the king into the inner court without being called, there is one law for him, that he be put to death, except those to whom the king might hold out the golden scepter, that he may live. I have not been called to come in to the king these thirty days." (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Esther 5:2 When the king saw Esther the queen standing in the court, she obtained favor in his sight; and the king held out to Esther the golden scepter that was in his hand. So Esther came near, and touched the top of the scepter. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Esther 8:4 Then the king held out to Esther the golden scepter. So Esther arose, and stood before the king. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Esther 8:15 And Mordecai went forth from the presence of the king in royal apparel of blue and white, and with a great crown of gold, and with a rob of fine linen and purple; and the city of Shushan shouted and was glad. (See RSV)

Job 37:22 Out of the north comes golden splendor. With God is awesome majesty. (WEB JPS ASV YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Job 42:11 And all his brethren, and all his sisters, and all they that had been of his acquaintance before, came to him, and they ate bread with him in his house, and they condoled with him, and comforted him concerning all the evil that Jehovah had brought upon him; and every one gave him a piece of money, and every one a golden ring. (DBY)

Ecclesiastes 12:6 before the silver cord is severed, or the golden bowl is broken, or the pitcher is broken at the spring, or the wheel broken at the cistern, (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Isaiah 13:12 I will make a man more precious than fine gold; even a man than the golden wedge of Ophir. (KJV WBS)

Isaiah 14:4 that you will take up this parable against the king of Babylon, and say, "How the oppressor has ceased! The golden city has ceased!" (WEB KJV ASV WBS)

Isaiah 14:5 Ceased hath the golden one. Broken hath Jehovah the staff of the wicked, The sceptre of rulers. (YLT)

Jeremiah 51:7 Babylon has been a golden cup in Yahweh's hand, who made all the earth drunken: the nations have drunk of her wine; therefore the nations are mad. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Daniel 3:5 that whenever you hear the sound of the horn, flute, zither, lyre, harp, pipe, and all kinds of music, you fall down and worship the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king has set up; (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Daniel 3:7 Therefore at that time, when all the peoples heard the sound of the horn, flute, zither, lyre, harp, pipe, and all kinds of music, all the peoples, the nations, and the languages, fell down and worshiped the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Daniel 3:10 You, O king, have made a decree, that every man that shall hear the sound of the horn, flute, zither, lyre, harp, pipe, and all kinds of music, shall fall down and worship the golden image; (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Daniel 3:12 There are certain Jews whom you have appointed over the affairs of the province of Babylon: Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego; these men, O king, have not respected you. They don't serve your gods, nor worship the golden image which you have set up. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Daniel 3:14 Nebuchadnezzar answered them, Is it on purpose, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, that you don't serve my god, nor worship the golden image which I have set up? (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Daniel 3:18 But if not, be it known to you, O king, that we will not serve your gods, nor worship the golden image which you have set up. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Daniel 5:2 Belshazzar, while he tasted the wine, commanded to bring the golden and silver vessels which Nebuchadnezzar his father had taken out of the temple which was in Jerusalem; that the king and his lords, his wives and his concubines, might drink from them. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS)

Daniel 5:3 Then they brought the golden vessels that were taken out of the temple of the house of God which was at Jerusalem; and the king and his lords, his wives and his concubines, drank from them. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS RSV)

Zechariah 4:12 I asked him the second time, "What are these two olive branches, which are beside the two golden spouts, that pour the golden oil out of themselves?" (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Golden (86 Occurrences)
... Easton's Bible Dictionary Golden calf. ... 1. (a.) Made of gold; consisting of gold.
2. (a.) Having the color of gold; as, the golden grain. ...
/g/golden.htm - 66k

Spoon (13 Occurrences)
... Beginning with 7:14, we meet at every succeeding 6th verse the statement, "one golden
spoon of ten shekels, full of incense," till at 7:86 the summary ...
/s/spoon.htm - 10k

Weighing (39 Occurrences)
... Genesis 24:22 And it came to pass, as the camels had done drinking, that the man
took a golden ring of half a shekel weight, and two bracelets for her hands of ...
/w/weighing.htm - 17k

Ladle (11 Occurrences)
... Numbers 7:14 one golden ladle of ten shekels, full of incense; (WEB). Numbers
7:20 one golden ladle of ten shekels, full of incense; (WEB). ...
/l/ladle.htm - 9k

Censer (10 Occurrences)
... The vessel in which incense was presented on "the golden altar" before the Lord
in the temple (Exodus 30:1-9). The priest filled the censer with live coal from ...
/c/censer.htm - 14k

Pan (26 Occurrences)
... Numbers 7:14 one golden spoon of ten'shekels , full of incense; (See JPS NAS). Numbers
7:20 one golden spoon of ten'shekels , full of incense; (See JPS NAS). ...
/p/pan.htm - 20k

Candlestick (34 Occurrences)
... In the morning the priests trimmed the seven lamps, borne by the seven branches,
with golden snuffers, carrying away the ashes in golden dishes (Exodus 25:38 ...
/c/candlestick.htm - 27k

Dish (54 Occurrences)
... Numbers 7:14 one golden ladle of ten shekels, full of incense; (See RSV NIV). ... Numbers
7:20 one golden ladle of ten shekels, full of incense; (See RSV NIV). ...
/d/dish.htm - 24k

Incense (167 Occurrences)
... was not thus prepared was called "strange incense" (30:9). It was offered along
with every meat-offering; and besides was daily offered on the golden altar in ...
/i/incense.htm - 44k

Lampstands (10 Occurrences)
... Having turned, I saw seven golden lampstands. ... Revelation 1:20 the mystery of the
seven stars which you saw in my right hand, and the seven golden lampstands. ...
/l/lampstands.htm - 9k

5552. chrusous -- golden
... golden. Part of Speech: Adjective Transliteration: chrusous Phonetic Spelling:
(khroo'-seh-os) Short Definition: golden Definition: golden, made of gold ...
/greek/5552.htm - 7k

5553. chrusion -- a piece of gold, gold
... a piece of gold, gold. Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter Transliteration: chrusion Phonetic
Spelling: (khroo-see'-on) Short Definition: a golden ornament Definition ...
/greek/5553.htm - 7k

2435. hilasterion -- propitiatory
... 2435 (a substantival adjective, derived from 2433 , "to propitiate") -- the ; the
lid of the golden ark (the ) where the blood of a vicarious lamb appeased ...
/greek/2435.htm - 7k

5556. chrusoprasos -- a chrysoprase (a greenish-yellow gem)
... Transliteration: chrusoprasos Phonetic Spelling: (khroo-sop'-ras-os) Short Definition:
a chrysoprase Definition: a chrysoprase, gem of a golden-greenish color. ...
/greek/5556.htm - 6k

5557. chrusos -- gold
... gold. Perhaps from the base of chraomai (through the idea of the utility of the
metal); gold; by extension, a golden article, as an ornament or coin -- gold. ...
/greek/5557.htm - 6k

5558. chrusoo -- to gild, to cover with gold
... adorn, deck. From chrusos; to gild, ie Bespangle with golden ornaments -- deck.
see GREEK chrusos. (kechrusomene) -- 2 Occurrences. << 5557, 5558. chrusoo. 5559 ...
/greek/5558.htm - 6k

5554. chrusodaktulios -- with a gold ring
... with a gold ring. From chrusos and daktulios; gold-ringed, ie Wearing a golden
finger-ring or similar jewelry -- with a gold ring. see GREEK chrusos. ...
/greek/5554.htm - 6k

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

kaf, gol'-d'-n:



1. Narrative of Aaron's Golden Calf

2. Jeroboam's Golden Calves




I. The Name.

The term `eghel, is the ordinary Hebrew name for a male calf and is as flexible as the English name, applying to any animal from one a year old (Micah 6:6) or perhaps younger (Leviticus 9:3; Leviticus 12:6) to one three years old (Genesis 15:9; compare Jeremiah 34:18, 19). It has been thought that the habitual use of this diminutive term for the golden bulls which Aaron and Jeroboam set up-especially as it is twice made feminine (Hosea 10:5; Hosea 13:2)-was intended to indicate their small size and thus to express contempt for them. This however, though plausible, is by no means certain. It was not their size which made these bulls contemptible in the eyes of the prophets, and besides there were no life-size bulls of molten gold in any surrounding countries so far as known. The reference to female calves that were kissed (Hosea 13:2), presumably at Bethel, may refer not to the worship of the bulls, but to their female counterparts, since in all other countries such female deities invariably accompanied the bull gods. Bethel may be especially mentioned because it was the "king's sanctuary" (Amos 7:13) or because of the multitude of altars and high places found there (Hosea 10:8; compare Hosea 8:11 Amos 5:26). False worship is also mentioned in connection with Jeroboam's apostasy, at Gilgal and Gilead (Hosea 4:15; Hosea 12:11 Amos 4:4; Amos 5:5), Samaria (Hosea 8:6; Hosea 10:5; Hosea 13:2, 16); and Beersheba (Amos 5:5; Amos 8:14) where no bulls had been set up by Jeroboam so far as stated. That these places receive more condemnation than Dan-which is explicitly mentioned in only one passage (Amos 8:14) though it was a chief center of the bull worship (1 Kings 12:30)-may be due to the fact that the worship of the female deity was the more popular. This was certainly true in neighboring countries and also in other cities in Palestine, as has recently been proved by the excavations (see below).

II. Ancient Calf Worship.

The origin of animal worship is hidden in obscurity, but reverence for the bull and cow is found widespread among the most ancient historic cults. Even in the prehistoric age the influence of the bull symbol was so powerful that it gave its name to one of the most important signs of the Zodiac, and from early historic times the horns of the bull were the familiar emblem of the rays of the sun, and solar gods were very commonly represented as bull-gods (Jensen, Kosmologie, 62-90; Winckler, Altorientalische Forschungen, 1901-5, passim; Jeremias, Das Alter der bah. Astronomie, 1909, passim). The Egyptians, close neighbors of the Hebrews, in all eras from that of the Exodus onward, worshipped living bulls at Memphis (not Mendes, as EB) and Hellopolls as incarnations of Ptah and Ra, while one of the most elaborate rituals was connected with the life-size image of the Hathor-cow (Naville, Deir el Bahari, Part I (1907), 163-67), while the sun was revered as the "valiant bull" and the reigning Pharaoh as "Bull of Bulls." But far more important in this connection is the fact that "calf" worship was almost if not quite universal among all the ancient Semitic peoples. If the immediate ancestors of Abraham did not revere this deity, they were certainly quite unlike their relatives, the Babylonians, among whom, according to all tradition, they lived before they migrated to Palestine (Genesis 11:28, 30; Josephus, Ant, I, vi, 5), for the Babylonians revered the bull as the symbol of their greatest gods, Ann and Sin and Marduk-the ideograph of a young bullock forming a part of the latter's name-while Hadadrimmon, an important Amorite deity, whose attributes remarkably resemble those of Yahweh (see Ward, AJSL, XXV, 175-85; Clay, Amurru (1909), 87-89), is pictured standing on the back of a bull. In Phoenicia also the bull was a sacred animal, as well as in northern Syria where it ranked as one of the chief Hittite deities its images receiving devout worship (see further, Sayce, Encyclopedia of Rel. and Ethics, under the word "Bull"). Among all these peoples the cow goddess was given at least equal honor. In Babylonia the goddess Ishtar has the cow for her symbol on very ancient seal cylinders, and when this nude or half-nude goddess appears in Palestine she often stands on a bull or cow (see William Hayes Ward, Cylinders and Other Ancient Oriental Seals), and under slightly different forms this same goddess is revered in Arabia, Moab, Phoenicia, Syria and elsewhere, while among the Semitic Canaanites the bull was the symbol of Baal, and the cow of Astarte (see particularly Barton, Hebraica, IX, 133-63; X, 1-74, and Semitic Origins, chapter vii; Driver, "Astarte" in DB). Recent excavations in Palestine have shown that during all eras no heathen worship was as popular as that of Astarte in her various forms (see S. A. Cook, Rel. of Ancient Palestine, 1909). That she once is found wearing ram's horns (PEFS (1903), 227) only reveals her nature more clearly as the goddess of fertility. Her relation to the sacred fish at Carnion in Gilead and to the doves of Ascalon, as well as to female prostitution and to Nature's "resurrection" and fruitage, had been previously well known, as also her relation to the moon which governs the seasons. Is there any rational motif which can account for this widespread "calf" worship? Is it conceivable that this cult could so powerfully influence such intelligent and rather spiritually-minded nations as the Egyptians and Babylonians if it were wholly irrational and contained no spiritual content? And is there no rational explanation behind this constant fusion of the deity which controls the breeding of cattle with the deity which controls vegetation? How did the bull come to represent the "corn spirit," so that the running of a bull through the corn (the most destructive act) came to presage good crops; and how did the rending of a bull, spilling his life blood on the soil, increase fertility? (See Fraser, Golden Bough, II, 291-93, 344.) The one real controlling motif of all these various representations and functions of the "calf" god may be found in the ancient awe, especially among the Semites, for the Mystery of Life. This seems to offer a sufficient reason why the bull, which is a most conspicuous example of life-giving power, should be so closely connected with the reproductive processes of the animal and vegetable kingdoms and also with the sun, which from earliest historic times was considered as preeminently the "giver of life." Bull worship was not always an exhibition of gross animalism, but, certainly in Bible times, often represented a concept which was the product of reflection upon one of the deepest mysteries of Nature. Few hymns in Egypt or Babylon express higher spiritual knowledge and aspiration than those addressed to the bull gods or to others honored with this title, e.g. this one to the god Sin of Ur, the "heifer of Anu," "Strong young bull; with strong horns,. with beard of lapislazuli color. self-created, full of developed fruit. Mother-womb who has taken up his abode, begetter of all things, exalted habitation among living creatures; O merciful gracious father, in whose hand rests the life of the whole world; O Lord, thy divinity is full of awe like the far-off heaven and the broad ocean!" (Rogers, Religion of Babylonia and Assyria (1908), 164). Many modern scholars believe that the primitive Egyptians and Babylonians really thought of their earthly and heavenly gods as animals (see especially Maspero, Bulletin critique, 1886; Revue de l'histoiredes religions, 1888), but it seems certain that at least as early as the date of the Exodus these stars and beasts were not regarded by all as being themselves deities, but rather as symbols or representations of deity (Davis and Cobern, Ancient Egypt, 281-89; Brugsch, Die Aegyptologie, I, 135; Chwolsohn, Die Ssabier u. der Ssabismus, II, 134).

1. Narrative of Aaron's Golden Calf:

The text of Exodus 32 is certainly composite (see e.g. Bacon's "Exodus" in the place cited and DB), and some words and phrases are a verbal dupli care of the narrative of Jeroboam's calf worship (compare Exodus 32:4 with 1 Kings 12:28, and see parallel columns in Driver's Deteronomy). Some Bible critics so analyze the text as to make the entire calf story a later element, without ancient basis, added to some short original statement like Exodus 32:7-11, for the sake of satirizing Jeroboam's bull worship and its non-Levitical priesthood (see e.g. Kuenen, Hexateuch). Most recent critics have however accepted the incident as an ancient memory or historic fact attested by the oldest sources, and used thus by the Deuteronomist (Deuteronomy 9), though the verbal form may have been affected by the later editor's scorn of the northern apostasy. It seems clearly unreasonable to suppose that a Hebrew writer at any era would so fiercely abuse his own ancestors, without any traditional basis for his statements, merely for the sake of adding a little more which cast reproach upon his northern neighbors, and it seems equally unlikely that any such baseless charges would have been accepted as true by the slandered nation. The old expositors, accepting the essential historicity of the account, generally followed Philo and the early Fathers in supposing this calf of gold was an image of the Apis or Mnevis bulls of Egypt, and this is occasionally yet advocated by some Egyptologists (e.g. Steindorf, Ancient Egypt (1903), 167; compare also Jeremias, Old Testament in Light of Ancient East (1911), II, 138). The objections made to this view by the skeptics of the 18th century, based on the supposed impossibility of such chemical and mechanical skill being possessed at that era, have mostly been made obsolete by recent discovery. The common modern objection that this could not have been Apis worship because the Apis was a living bull, is by no means conclusive, since images of Apis are not uncommon and were probably worshipped in the temple itself. It may be added that a renaissance of this worship occurred at this very era. So Erman, Handbook of Egyptian Rel. (1907), 23-79. Modern Bible scholars, however, are practically unanimous in the opinion that the Golden Calf, if worshipped at all, must have been a representation of a Semitic, not an Egyptian, deity. In favor of this it may be suggested:

(1) It was an era when each deity was considered as the god of a particular country and it would seem impossible that a native Egyptian god should be thought of as joining with Egypt's enemies and assisting them to reach a land over which he had no control.

(2) The Israelite religion shows little influence from Egypt, but was immensely influenced from Canaan and Babylon, Apis only being mentioned once (Jeremiah 46:20 (translated "heifer"); compare Ezekiel 20:7, 8, and see Brugsch, Steininschrift und Bibelwort, passim, and Robertson, Early Religion of Israel, 217).

(3) The bull and cow are now known to have been ordinary symbols for the most popular deities which were worshipped by all the race-relatives of the Hebrews and nowhere more devoutly than in Canaan and in the adjoining districts (see above).

(4) Some of the chief gods of the pasture land of Goshen, where the Hebrews had resided for centuries (Genesis 47:6; Genesis 50:8), were Semitic gods which were worshipped not only by the Edomitic Bedouin and other foreigners living there by the "pools of Pithom" (compare Exodus 1:11) but by the native Egyptians, Ramses II even naming a daughter after one of these. The special god of this district had as its symbol a bull calf, and one inscription actually speaks of the statue of a "golden calf of 600 pounds weight" which it was the custom to dedicate annually to one of these Semitic gods, while another inscription mentions a statue of gold "a cubit in height" (Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt (1905), III, 630-38; Naville, Goshen, Store City of Pithom; Erman, Handbook; 173-74; Brugsch, op. cit.).

(5) The chief proof, however, is the statement of the text that the feast in connection with this worship was a "feast to Yahweh" (Exodus 32:5). When Moses disappeared for forty days in the Mount, it was not unnatural that the people should turn back to the visible symbols worshipped by their ancestors, and should give to them the new name or new attributes which had been attached to deity by Moses. The worship was condemned for much the same reason as that of Jeroboam's calves (see next section).

2. Jeroboam's Golden Calves:

Though this passage (1 Kings 12:26-33; compare 2 Chronicles 10:14, 15) may have been reedited later, "there is no reason to infer that any detail of fact is underived from the olden time" (Burney, Hebrew Text of Kings (1902), and DB). These calves which Jeroboam set up were doubtless bulls (1 Kings 12:28, Hebrew) but at least as early as Hosea's time it seems probable (see above) that the more licentious worship of the feminine principle had been added to the official worship (Hosea 10:5; Hosea 13:2, Hebrew). This which else here naturally and universally accompanied the bull worship could most truly be called "the sin of Samaria" (Amos 8:14) and be classed as the "sin of Jeroboam" (1 Kings 14:9, 16; 1 Kings 16:26 2 Kings 10:29). There is no sufficient reason for explaining the term "molten" in any other an its most natural and usual sense (Exodus 32:8, 24 2 Kings 17:16 Deuteronomy 9:16), for molded metal idols were common in all eras in Palestine and the surrounding countries, though the core of the image might be molten or graven of some inferior metal overlaid with gold (Isaiah 30:22; Isaiah 40:19, Hebrew; Deuteronomy 7:25 Exodus 32:4). These bull images were undoubtedly intended to represent Yahweh (yet compare Robertson, op. cit., and Orr, Problem of Old Testament (1906), 145). The text explicitly identifies these images with Aaron's calf (1 Kings 12:28), so that nearly all the reasons given above to prove that Aaron's image represented not an Egyptian but an ancient Semitic deity are equally valid here. To these various other arguments may be added:

(1) The text itself states that it is Yahweh who brought them from Egypt (Hosea 2:15; Hosea 12:13; Hosea 13:4), whom they call "My lord," and to whom they swear (Hosea 2:16, King James Version margin; Hosea 4:15); and to whom they present their wine offerings, sacrifices and feasts (Hosea 8:13; Hosea 9:4, 5, Hebrew; compare Amos 5:8).

(2) Jehu, though he destroyed all Baal idols, never touched these bulls (2 Kings 10:28, 29).

(3) The ritual, though freer, was essentially that of the Jerusalem temple (1 Kings 12:32 Hosea 5:6 Amos 4:5; Amos 5:22, 23; see, Oettli, Greifswalder Studien (1895), quoted in DB, I, 342).

(4) Even the southern prophets recognized that it was Yahweh who had given Jeroboam the kingdom (1 Kings 11:31; 1 Kings 12:15, 24) and only Yahweh worship could have realized Jeroboam's purpose of attaching to the throne by this cult such devout citizens as would otherwise be drawn to Jerusalem to worship. It was to guard against this appeal which the national sanctuary made to devout souls that this counter worship had been established. As Budde says, "A foreign cult would only have driven the devout Ephraimites the more surely over to Jerusalem" (Rel. of Israel (1899), 113). Jeroboam was not attempting to shock the conscience of his religious adherents by making heathenism the state religion, but rather to win these pious worshippers of Yahweh to his cause.

(5) The places selected for the bull worship were places already sacred to Yahweh. This was preeminently true of Bethel which, centuries before Jerusalem had been captured from the Jebusites, had been identified with special revelations of Yahweh's presence (Genesis 13:3, 4; Genesis 28:19; Genesis 31:13; Genesis 35:15 1 Samuel 7:16 Hosea 12:4).

(6) The story shows that the allegiance of his most pious subjects was retained (1 Kings 12:20) and that not even Elijah fled to the Southern, supposing that the Northern Kingdom had accepted the worship of heathen gods as its state religion. Instead of this, Elijah, though the boldest opponent of the worship of Baal, is never reported as uttering one word against the bull worship at Dan and Bethel.

III. Attitude of Elijah to the Bull Symbols.

This surprising silence is variously explained. A few scholars, though without any historic or textual evidence for the charge, are sure that the Bible narratives (though written by southern men) are fundamentally defective at this point, otherwise they would report Elijah's antagonism to this cult. Other few, equally without evidence, are comfortably sure that he fully approved the ancient ancestral calf cult. Others, with more probability, explain his position on the ground that, though he may not have favored the bull symbol-which was never used by the Patriarchs so far as known, and certainly was not used as a symbol of Yahweh in the Southern Kingdom, or Hosea the northern prophet would have spoken of it-yet being himself a northern man of old ideals and simple habits, Elijah may have believed that, even with this handicap, the freer and more democratic worship carried on al the ancient holy places in the North was less dangerous than the elaborate and luxurious ritual of the aristocratic and exclusive priesthood of the South, which insisted upon political and religious centralization, and was dependent upon such enormous revenues for its support (compare 1 Kings 12:10, 14). At any rate it is self-evident that if Elijah had turned against Jeroboam and the state religion, it would have divided seriously the forces which needed to unite, in order to oppose with all energy the much fouler worship of Baal which just at this crisis, as never before or afterward, threatened completely to overwhelm the worship of Yahweh.

IV. Attitude of Amos and Hosea to the Bull Symbols.

It is easy to see why Hosea might fiercely condemn a ritual which Elijah might rightly tolerate.

(1) This calf worship may have deteriorated. Elijah lived closer to the time when the new state ritual was inaugurated and would naturally be at its best. Hosea lived at an era when he could trace the history of this experiment for nearly two cents, and could see clearly that these images had not helped but greatly hindered the development of the ethical and spiritual religion of Yahweh. Even if at first recognized as symbols, these images had become common idols (Hosea 12:11; Hosea 13:2, and passim). "This tiring became a sin" (1 Kings 12:30; 1 Kings 13:34). The history of religion shows many such instances wher the visible or verbal symbol which in one era had been a real aid to devotion at a later time became positively antagonistic to it (see IMAGES). As Baal was also worshipped under the form of a calf and as Yahweh himself was at times called "Baal" (Isaiah 54:5 Jeremiah 31:32 Hosea 2:16 Hebrew) this unethical tendency would be accelerated, as also by the political antagonism between Judah and Ephraim and the bitter hatred between the two rival priesthoods (compare 2 Chronicles 11:15; 2 Chronicles 13:9). Certain it is that by the middle of the 8th century the worship at Dan and Bethel had extended itself to many other points and had become so closely affiliated with the heathen worship as to be practically indistinguishable-at least when viewed from the later prophetic standpoint. But

(2) it cannot be doubted that the prophetic standpoint had changed in 200 years. As the influence of the northern worship had tended toward heathenism, so the influence of the southern worship of an imageless god had tended toward higher spiritual ideals. Elijah could not have recognized the epoch-making importance of an imageless temple. The constant pressure of this idea-God is Spirit-had developed a new spiritual conscience, which by the 8th century was so keen that the worship of Yahweh under the form of an image was not improperly considered as almost if not quite as bad as out-and-out heathenism, just as the Reformers of the 16th century regarded the Roman Catholic images as little better than idols (Hosea 8:5, 6; Hosea 11:2; Hosea 13:2; compare 2 Kings 17:16, 17). The ifluence of this new conscience is also seen in the fact that it is not simply or perhaps chiefly the "calves" which are condemned, but the spirit of ungodliness and unkindness which also made the orthodox worship in Jerusalem little if any better than that at Bethel (Hosea 6:4; Hosea 5:12, 14). The influence of this theology-God is Spirit-had so filled the souls of these prophets that even the sacrifices had lost their importance when unaccompanied by kindness and spiritual knowledge (Hosea 6:6; Hosea 7:1), and it is the absence of this essential spirit, rather than the form of worship, which Amos and Hosea condemn in the Northern Kingdom (Amos 2:6-8; Amos 3:10; Amos 4:1; Amos 5:7, 12-15, 21-24; 6:12; 8:4-6 Hosea 4:2, 3; Hosea 9:1; Hosea 10:12-14). These later prophets could also see, as Elijah could not possibly have seen, that unity of worship was imperatively needed, and that sacrifices in the old sacred "high places" must be discontinued. Only thus could superstitious fanaticism and religious disintegration be avoided. A miscellaneous and unregulated Yahweh cult might become almost as bad as heathenism. Indeed it might be worse if it gave the Baal spirit and interpretation to Yahweh worship.

See also ASTROLOGY, sec. II, 2.


Besides references above, see especially commentaries of Dillmann and Driver on Exodus; Kuenen, Religion of Israel; W. R. Smith, Religion of Semites, 93-113 and index; Konig, Hauptprobleme der altisraelitischen Religionsgeschichte; Baeth gen, Beitr. zur semit. Religionsgeschichte; Kittel, History of Hebrews; "Baal" and "Ashtoreth" in Encyclopedia of Rel. and Ethics (full lit.); "Golden Calf" in Jewish Encyclopedia for Rabbinical and Mohammedan lit.

Camden M. Cobern


kan'-d'-l-stik, gold'-'-n (menorah, literally "lamp-stand"): An important part of the furniture of the tabernacle and temples.


1. The Tabernacle:

The candlestick is first met with in the descriptions of the tabernacle (Exodus 25:31-39; Exodus 37:17-24). It was, with the utensils connected with it (snuffers, snuff dishes), to be made of pure beaten gold, of one piece, a talent in weight (Exodus 25:39). It consisted of a pedestal or base, of a central stem (the name "candlestick" is specially given to this), of six curving branches-three on each side-and of seven lamps resting on the tops of the branches and stem. Stem and branches were ornamented with cups like almond-blossoms, knops and flowers-four of this series on the stem, and three on each of the branches. Some, however, understand the "cup" to embrace the "knop" and "flower" (calyx and corolla). The shape of the pedestal is uncertain. Jewish tradition suggests three small feet; the representation of the candlestick on the Arch of Titus has a solid, hexagonal base. The position of the candlestick was on the South side of the holy place (Exodus 40:24).

2. Temple of Solomon:

In Solomon's temple the single golden candlestick was multiplied to ten, and the position was altered. The candlesticks were now placed in front of the Holy of Holies, five on one side, five on the other (1 Kings 7:49 2 Chronicles 4:7). Further details are not given in the texts, from which it may be presumed that the model of the tabernacle candlestick was followed.

3. Temple of Zerubbabel:

The second temple reverted to the single golden candlestick. When the temple was plundered by Antiochus Epiphanes, the candlestick was taken away (1 Maccabees 1:21); after the cleansing, a new one was made by Judas Maccabeus (1 Maccabees 4:49, 50).

4. Temple of Herod:

The same arrangement of a single golden candlestick, placed on the South side of the holy place, was continued in Herod's Temple (Josephus, BJ, V, v, 5). It was this which, carried away by Titus, was represented on his Arch at Rome.

5. Use and Symbolism:

The immediate object of the candlestick was to give light in the holy place. The lamps were lighted in the evening and burned till the morning (Exodus 30:7, 8 Leviticus 24:3 1 Samuel 3:3 2 Chronicles 13:11), light being admitted into the temple during the day by the upper windows. Josephus in his Cosmical speculations (BJ, V, v, 5) takes the seven lamps to signify the seven planets. In Zechariah's vision of the golden candlestick (Zechariah 4:2), the seven lamps are fed by two olive trees which are interpreted to be "the two anointed ones," Zerubbabel and Joshua-the civil and spiritual representatives of theocracy. The candlestick here, like the seven candlesticks in Revelation 1:20; Revelation 2:1, symbolizes the church of God, then in its Old Testament form, the idea conveyed being that God's church is set to be a lightgiver in the world. Compare Christ's words (Matthew 5:14, 16 Luke 12:35), and Paul's (Philippians 2:15).

The oldest known representation of the seven-branched candlestick is on a coin of Antigonus, circa 40 B.C. (see Madden's Coins of the Jews, 102). For literature see TABERNACLE; TEMPLE.

James Orr


gold'-'-n: Probably a representation of the sun in Taurus.



gold'-'-n: The translation "golden city" (Isaiah 14:4) is an attempt to render the received text (madhhebhah), but can hardly be justified. Almost all the ancient versions read (marhebhah), a word which connotes unrest and insolence, fitting the context well.


gold'-'-n num'-ber: Used in the regulation of the ecclesiastical calendar, in the "Metonic cycle" of 19 years, which almost exactly reconciles the natural month and the solar year.

See ASTRONOMY, sec. I, 5.





Easton's Bible Dictionary
Golden calf

(Exodus 32:4, 8; Deuteronomy 9:16; Nehemiah 9:18). This was a molten image of a calf which the idolatrous Israelites formed at Sinai. This symbol was borrowed from the custom of the Egyptians. It was destroyed at the command of Moses (Exodus 32:20). (see AARON; MOSES.)

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
1. (a.) Made of gold; consisting of gold.

2. (a.) Having the color of gold; as, the golden grain.

3. (a.) Very precious; highly valuable; excellent; eminently auspicious; as, golden opinions.

Strong's Hebrew
4062. madhebah -- golden city
... madhebah. 4063 >>. golden city. Transliteration: madhebah Phonetic Spelling:
(mad-hay-baw') Short Definition: city. Word Origin see marhebah. golden city ...
/hebrew/4062.htm - 5k

3558. kumaz -- (a golden ornament) perhaps a bracelet
... << 3557, 3558. kumaz. 3559 >>. (a golden ornament) perhaps a bracelet. Transliteration:
kumaz Phonetic Spelling: (koo-mawz') Short Definition: bracelets. ...
/hebrew/3558.htm - 6k

2091. zahab -- gold
... Definition: gold. Word Origin of uncertain derivation Definition gold NASB Word
Usage gold (354), golden (33). golden, fair weather. From an ...
/hebrew/2091.htm - 6k

6669. tsahob -- gleaming, yellow
... Word Origin from tsaheb Definition gleaming, yellow NASB Word Usage yellowish (3).
yellow. From tsahab; golden in color -- yellow. see HEBREW tsahab. ...
/hebrew/6669.htm - 6k

6668. tsaheb -- to gleam
... root Definition to gleam NASB Word Usage shiny (1). fine. A primitive root; to glitter,
ie Be golden in color -- X fine. << 6667, 6668. tsaheb or tsahob. 6669 > ...
/hebrew/6668.htm - 5k

1722. dehab -- gold
... Definition: gold. Word Origin (Aramaic) corresponding to zahab Definition gold
NASB Word Usage gold (17), golden (6). gold en. (Aramaic ...
/hebrew/1722.htm - 6k

3800. kethem -- gold
... Word Origin from an unused word Definition gold NASB Word Usage fine gold
(2), gold (6), pure gold (1). most fine, pure golden wedge. ...
/hebrew/3800.htm - 6k



Golden Calf

Golden City

Golden Number

Golden Rule

Golden Rule: General Scriptures Concerning

Related Terms

Spoon (13 Occurrences)

Weighing (39 Occurrences)

Ladle (11 Occurrences)

Censer (10 Occurrences)

Pan (26 Occurrences)

Candlestick (34 Occurrences)

Dish (54 Occurrences)

Incense (167 Occurrences)

Lampstands (10 Occurrences)

Lamp-stands (5 Occurrences)

Lamps (45 Occurrences)

Goblets (12 Occurrences)

Ear-rings (12 Occurrences)

Earrings (14 Occurrences)

Mice (5 Occurrences)

Molding (10 Occurrences)

Emerods (8 Occurrences)

Candlesticks (11 Occurrences)

Shekels (92 Occurrences)

Pomegranate (11 Occurrences)

Sceptre (20 Occurrences)

Rings (46 Occurrences)

Scepter (28 Occurrences)

Eagle (27 Occurrences)

Bowls (47 Occurrences)

Staves (50 Occurrences)

Zither (3 Occurrences)

Lute (13 Occurrences)

Trigon (3 Occurrences)

Tumors (8 Occurrences)

Rats (5 Occurrences)

Dulcimer (3 Occurrences)

Dura (1 Occurrence)

Musick (10 Occurrences)

Psaltery (17 Occurrences)

Philistine (63 Occurrences)

Bell (3 Occurrences)

Candle (16 Occurrences)

Cornet (8 Occurrences)

Arrayed (46 Occurrences)


Showbread (18 Occurrences)

Sackbut (4 Occurrences)

Sambuca (4 Occurrences)

Obeisance (45 Occurrences)

Poles (58 Occurrences)

Flute (16 Occurrences)

Sides (170 Occurrences)

Pipe (13 Occurrences)

Dressed (77 Occurrences)

Holding (62 Occurrences)

Lyre (32 Occurrences)

Holdeth (21 Occurrences)

Shewbread (16 Occurrences)

Trespass-offering (34 Occurrences)

Whereon (45 Occurrences)

Guilt-offering (34 Occurrences)

Seven (404 Occurrences)

Idolatry (14 Occurrences)

Manna (19 Occurrences)

Calf (39 Occurrences)

Robe (142 Occurrences)

Lords (63 Occurrences)

Tables (41 Occurrences)

Perfume (202 Occurrences)

Gold (429 Occurrences)

Aaron's (53 Occurrences)

Magician (5 Occurrences)

Nebuchadnez'zar (55 Occurrences)

Ring (33 Occurrences)


Vials (5 Occurrences)

Bowl (44 Occurrences)

Olive-branches (2 Occurrences)

Overlaid (50 Occurrences)

Jar (45 Occurrences)

Jambres (2 Occurrences)

Jannes (2 Occurrences)

Ladles (3 Occurrences)

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