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Press (57 Occurrences)

Mark 2:4 And when they could not come nigh unto him for the press, they uncovered the roof where he was: and when they had broken it up, they let down the bed wherein the sick of the palsy lay. (KJV)

Mark 3:9 He spoke to his disciples that a little boat should stay near him because of the crowd, so that they wouldn't press on him. (WEB DBY YLT)

Mark 5:27 When she had heard of Jesus, came in the press behind, and touched his garment. (KJV)

Mark 5:30 And Jesus, immediately knowing in himself that virtue had gone out of him, turned him about in the press, and said, Who touched my clothes? (KJV)

Mark 12:1 He began to speak to them in parables. "A man planted a vineyard, put a hedge around it, dug a pit for the winepress, built a tower, rented it out to a farmer, and went into another country. (Root in WEB ASV NAS RSV NIV)

Luke 8:19 Then came to him his mother and his brethren, and could not come at him for the press. (KJV)

Luke 8:45 Jesus said, "Who touched me?" When all denied it, Peter and those with him said, "Master, the multitudes press and jostle you, and you say,'Who touched me?' " (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Luke 11:53 And when he was come out from thence, the scribes and the Pharisees began to press upon 'him' vehemently, and to provoke him to speak of many things; (ASV DBY YLT RSV)

Luke 16:16 The law and the prophets were until John: since that time the kingdom of God is preached, and every man presseth into it. (Root in KJV WBS YLT)

Luke 19:3 And he sought to see Jesus who he was; and could not for the press, because he was little of stature. (KJV)

Luke 19:43 Because days shall come upon thee, and thine enemies shall cast around thee a rampart, and compass thee round, and press thee on every side, (YLT)

Acts 19:38 If therefore Demetrius and the craftsmen who are with him have a matter against anyone, the courts are open, and there are proconsuls. Let them press charges against one another. (WEB NIV)

Acts 25:5 "Let them therefore," said he, "that are in power among you go down with me, and if there is anything wrong in the man, let them accuse him." (See NIV)

2 Corinthians 2:5 But if any has caused sorrow, he has caused sorrow, not to me, but in part (that I not press too heavily) to you all. (WEB ASV)

Philippians 3:12 Not that I have already obtained, or am already made perfect; but I press on, if it is so that I may take hold of that for which also I was taken hold of by Christ Jesus. (WEB WEY ASV NAS RSV NIV)

Philippians 3:14 I press on toward the goal for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus. (WEB KJV ASV WBS NAS RSV NIV)

1 Timothy 5:7 Press these facts upon them, so that they may live lives free from reproach. (WEY)

Hebrews 6:1 Therefore leaving the teaching of the first principles of Christ, let us press on to perfection-not laying again a foundation of repentance from dead works, of faith toward God, (WEB ASV NAS)

Revelation 14:19 The angel thrust his sickle into the earth, and gathered the vintage of the earth, and threw it into the great winepress of the wrath of God. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Revelation 14:20 The winepress was trodden outside of the city, and blood came out from the winepress, even to the bridles of the horses, as far as one thousand six hundred stadia. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Revelation 19:15 Out of his mouth proceeds a sharp, double-edged sword, that with it he should strike the nations. He will rule them with an iron rod. He treads the winepress of the fierceness of the wrath of God, the Almighty. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Genesis 19:9 They said, "Stand back!" Then they said, "This one fellow came in to live as a foreigner, and he appoints himself a judge. Now will we deal worse with you, than with them!" They pressed hard on the man Lot, and drew near to break the door. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Genesis 19:15 And when the dawn hath ascended, then the messengers press upon Lot, saying, 'Rise, take thy wife, and thy two daughters who are found present, lest thou be consumed in the iniquity of the city.' (YLT)

Genesis 40:11 Pharaoh's cup was in my hand; and I took the grapes, and pressed them into Pharaoh's cup, and I gave the cup into Pharaoh's hand." (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV)

Genesis 49:19 "A troop will press on Gad, but he will press on their heel. (WEB ASV)

Numbers 18:27 Your wave offering shall be reckoned to you, as though it were the grain of the threshing floor, and as the fullness of the winepress. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS RSV NIV)

Numbers 18:30 "Therefore you shall tell them,'When you heave its best from it, then it shall be reckoned to the Levites as the increase of the threshing floor, and as the increase of the winepress. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS RSV NIV)

Deuteronomy 15:14 you shall furnish him liberally out of your flock, and out of your threshing floor, and out of your winepress; as Yahweh your God has blessed you, you shall give to him. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS RSV NIV)

Deuteronomy 16:13 You shall keep the feast of tents seven days, after that you have gathered in from your threshing floor and from your winepress: (Root in WEB JPS ASV DBY RSV NIV)

Judges 1:34 The Amorites pressed the Danites back into the hill country, for they did not allow them to come down to the plain; (Root in DBY YLT RSV)

Judges 6:11 The angel of Yahweh came, and sat under the oak which was in Ophrah, that pertained to Joash the Abiezrite: and his son Gideon was beating out wheat in the winepress, to hide it from the Midianites. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Judges 7:25 They took the two princes of Midian, Oreb and Zeeb; and they killed Oreb at the rock of Oreb, and Zeeb they killed at the winepress of Zeeb, and pursued Midian: and they brought the heads of Oreb and Zeeb to Gideon beyond the Jordan. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)

Judges 14:17 She wept before him the seven days, while their feast lasted: and it happened on the seventh day, that he told her, because she pressed him sore; and she told the riddle to the children of her people. (Root in WEB JPS ASV DBY NAS RSV NIV)

2 Samuel 11:25 Then David said to the messenger, "Thus you shall tell Joab,'Don't let this thing displease you, for the sword devours one as well as another. Make your battle stronger against the city, and overthrow it.' Encourage him." (See NIV)

2 Kings 2:17 And they pressed him till he was ashamed, and he said, Send. They sent therefore fifty men, and they sought three days, but did not find him. (Root in DBY YLT)

2 Kings 6:27 He said, "If Yahweh doesn't help you, from where could I help you? From of the threshing floor, or from the winepress?" (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)

Job 23:6 Would he contend with me in the greatness of his power? No, but he would listen to me. (See NIV)

Job 24:11 They make oil within the walls of these men. They tread wine presses, and suffer thirst. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Job 37:11 Yea, by filling He doth press out a cloud, Scatter a cloud doth His light. (YLT)

Job 39:15 And she forgetteth that a foot may press it, And a beast of the field tread it down. (YLT)

Job 41:1 "Can you draw out Leviathan with a fishhook, or press down his tongue with a cord? (WEB JPS ASV DBY NAS RSV)

Proverbs 6:3 Do this now, my son, and deliver yourself, seeing you have come into the hand of your neighbor. Go, humble yourself. Press your plea with your neighbor. (WEB NIV)

Isaiah 5:2 He dug it up, gathered out its stones, planted it with the choicest vine, built a tower in its midst, and also cut out a winepress therein. He looked for it to yield grapes, but it yielded wild grapes. (Root in WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NIV)

Isaiah 21:15 For they are in flight from the sharp sword, and the bent bow, and from the trouble of war. (See NAS RSV)

Isaiah 63:2 Why is your clothing red, and why are your robes like those of one who is crushing the grapes? (See NAS RSV NIV)

Lamentations 1:15 The Lord has set at nothing all my mighty men in the midst of me; He has called a solemn assembly against me to crush my young men: The Lord has trodden as in a winepress the virgin daughter of Judah. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Ezekiel 4:3 And thou, take to thee an iron pan, and thou hast made it a wall of iron between thee and the city; and thou hast prepared thy face against it, and it hath been in a siege, yea, thou hast laid siege against it. A sign it 'is' to the house of Israel. (See RSV)

Daniel 4:9 O Belteshazzar, master of the scribes, as I have known that the spirit of the holy gods 'is' in thee, and no secret doth press thee, the visions of my dream that I have seen, and its interpretation, tell. (YLT)

Daniel 11:13 The king of the north shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former; and he shall come on at the end of the times, even of years, with a great army and with much substance. (See NAS)

Hosea 6:3 Let us acknowledge Yahweh. Let us press on to know Yahweh. As surely as the sun rises, Yahweh will appear. He will come to us like the rain, like the spring rain that waters the earth." Haggai (WEB NAS RSV NIV)

Hosea 9:2 The threshing floor and the winepress won't feed them, and the new wine will fail her. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Joel 2:8 Neither doth one press upon another; they march every one in his path; and fall amid weapons, but are not wounded. (DBY YLT)

Joel 3:13 Put in the sickle; for the harvest is ripe. Come, tread, for the winepress is full, the vats overflow, for their wickedness is great." (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Amos 2:13 Behold, I am pressed under you, as a cart is pressed that is full of sheaves. (Root in KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV)

Micah 6:15 You will sow, but won't reap. You will tread the olives, but won't anoint yourself with oil; and crush grapes, but won't drink the wine. (See NIV)

Habakkuk 1:8 Their horses also are swifter than leopards, and are more fierce than the evening wolves. Their horsemen press proudly on. Yes, their horsemen come from afar. They fly as an eagle that hurries to devour. (WEB ASV RSV)

Haggai 2:16 Since those days were, when one came to an heap of twenty measures, there were but ten: when one came to the pressfat for to draw out fifty vessels out of the press, there were but twenty. (Root in KJV JPS DBY WBS)

Press (57 Occurrences)
... thrusting, in distinction from pulling; to crowd or compel by a gradual and continued
exertion; to bear upon; to squeeze; to compress; as, we press the ground ...
/p/press.htm - 46k

Wine-press (11 Occurrences)
Wine-press. << Winepress, Wine-press. Winepresses >>. Easton's Bible Dictionary ...
Multi-Version Concordance Wine-press (11 Occurrences). ...
/w/wine-press.htm - 11k

Press-vat (1 Occurrence)
Press-vat. << Pressured, Press-vat. Presume >>. Multi-Version Concordance
Press-vat (1 Occurrence). Haggai 2:16 Since those ...
/p/press-vat.htm - 6k

Press-measures (1 Occurrence)
Press-measures. << Pressing, Press-measures. Pressure >>. Multi-Version
Concordance Press-measures (1 Occurrence). Haggai ...
/p/press-measures.htm - 6k

Urge (34 Occurrences)
... Noah Webster's Dictionary 1. (vt) To press; to push; to drive; to impel; to
force onward. ... 4. (vt) To press hard upon; to follow closely. ...
/u/urge.htm - 15k

Crowd (166 Occurrences)
... Noah Webster's Dictionary 1. (vt) To push, to press, to shove. 2. (vt)
To press or drive together; to mass together. 3. (vt) To ...
/c/crowd.htm - 35k

Gethsemane (2 Occurrences)
... Oil-press, the name of an olive-yard at the foot of the Mount of Olives, to which
Jesus was wont to retire (Luke 22:39) with his disciples, and which is ...
/g/gethsemane.htm - 11k

Throng (21 Occurrences)
... 4. (vi) To crowd together; to press together into a close body, as a multitude
of persons; to gather or move in multitudes. 5. (vt ...
/t/throng.htm - 12k

Drive (132 Occurrences)
... 3. (vt) To urge, impel, or hurry forward; to force; to constrain; to urge, press,
or bring to a point or state; as, to drive a person by necessity, by ...
/d/drive.htm - 38k

Push (23 Occurrences)
... 2. (vt) To press against with force; to drive or impel by pressure; to endeavor
to drive by steady pressure, without striking; -- opposed to draw. ...
/p/push.htm - 14k

4085. piezo -- to press down
... to press down. Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: piezo Phonetic Spelling:
(pee-ed'-zo) Short Definition: I press down Definition: I press down, press ...
/greek/4085.htm - 6k

2346. thlibo -- to press, afflict
... to press, afflict. Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: thlibo Phonetic Spelling:
(thlee'-bo) Short Definition: I make narrow, persecute, press hard Definition ...
/greek/2346.htm - 7k

598. apothlibo -- to press hard
... to press hard. Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: apothlibo Phonetic Spelling:
(ap-oth-lee'-bo) Short Definition: I jostle Definition: (lit: I rub), jostle ...
/greek/598.htm - 6k

4918. sunthlibo -- to press together
... to press together. Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: sunthlibo Phonetic Spelling:
(soon-thlee'-bo) Short Definition: I crowd upon Definition: I press on all ...
/greek/4918.htm - 6k

4912. sunecho -- to hold together, to hold fast, pass. to be ...
... to be seized (by illness). Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: sunecho Phonetic
Spelling: (soon-ekh'-o) Short Definition: I press together, confine, compel ...
/greek/4912.htm - 7k

1968. epipipto -- to fall upon
... to fall upon. Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: epipipto Phonetic Spelling:
(ep-ee-pip'-to) Short Definition: I fall upon, press upon Definition: I fall upon ...
/greek/1968.htm - 6k

5276. hupolenion -- a vessel or trough beneath a winepress (to ...
... Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter Transliteration: hupolenion Phonetic Spelling:
(hoop-ol-ay'-nee-on) Short Definition: a pit under the wine-press Definition: a ...
/greek/5276.htm - 6k

1945. epikeimai -- to lie on
... ep-ik'-i-mahee) Short Definition: I lie upon, am insistent Definition: (a) dat:
I am placed upon, am laid upon, lie upon, am imposed; I press upon, (b) absol ...
/greek/1945.htm - 7k

3025b. lenos -- a trough, ie a (wine) vat
... Word Origin a prim. word Definition a trough, ie a (wine) vat NASB Word Usage press
(1), wine press (4), wine* (1). << 3025a, 3025b. lenos. 3026 >>. ...
/greek/3025b.htm - 5k

4729. stenochoreo -- to be made narrow, to compress
... to be made narrow, to compress. Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: stenochoreo
Phonetic Spelling: (sten-okh-o-reh'-o) Short Definition: I press upon, cramp ...
/greek/4729.htm - 7k

ATS Bible Dictionary

Not only the vat in which the juice was trodden out from the grapes, but in some cases the whole place for the reception of wine, grapes, and orchard-fruit. It was often a room excavated in the ground; thus the husbandman "dug a wine-press" in his vineyard, Matthew 21:33. See also Proverbs 3:10 Joel 3:13 Haggai 2:16. See WINE.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

pres: As a verb is used in the Revised Version (British and American) as a translation of no less than 13 Greek and Hebrew words (rather more in the King James Version). All the Revised Version (British and American) uses are modern. In the King James Version may be noted The Wisdom of Solomon 17:11, "pressed with conscience" (the Revised Version (British and American) "pressed hard by"); 2 Maccabees 14:9, "pressed on every side" (the Revised Version (British and American) "surrounded by foes"); Acts 18:5, "pressed in the spirit" (the Revised Version (British and American) "constrained by"). As a noun, the King James Version uses "press" in Mark 2:4 for ochlos, "crowd" (so the Revised Version (British and American)). For wine press see VINE; WINE.


win, win'-pres:

I. Terms.

1. Wine:

(1) (yayin), apparently from a non-Tsere root allied to Greek oinos, Latin vinum, etc. This is the usual word for "wine" and is found 141 times in Massoretic Text.

(2) chemer, perhaps "foaming" (Deuteronomy 32:14 and Massoretic Text Isaiah 27:2 (but see the English Revised Version margin)); Aramaic chamar (Ezra 6:9; Ezra 7:22 Daniel 5:1, 2, 4, 23).

(3) tirosh. Properly this is the fresh grape juice (called also mishreh, Numbers 6:3), even when still in the grape (Isaiah 65:8). But unfermented grape juice is a very difficult thing to keep without the aid of modern antiseptic precautions, and its preservation in the warm and not over-cleanly conditions of ancient Palestine was impossible. Consequently, tirosh came to mean wine that was not fully aged (although with full intoxicating properties (Judges 9:13 Hosea 4:11; compare Acts 11:13)) or wine when considered specifically as the product of grapes (Deuteronomy 12:17; Deuteronomy 18:4, etc.). The Septuagint always (except Isaiah 65:8 Hosea 4:11) translates by oinos and the Targums by chamar. the King James Version has "wine" 26 times, "new wine" 11 times, "sweet wine" in Micah 6:15; the Revised Version (British and American) "vintage" in Numbers 18:12 Micah 6:15 (with the same change in Nehemiah 10:37, 39 the Revised Version margin; Isaiah 62:8 the English Revised Version margin). Otherwise the English Revised Version has left the King James Version unchanged, while the American Standard Revised Version uses "new wine" throughout.

(4) Two apparently poetic words are `acic (the Revised Version (British and American) "sweet wine," Isaiah 49:26 Amos 9:13 Joel 1:5; Joel 3:18, "juice"; Songs 8:2), and cobhe' ("wine," Isaiah 1:22; "drink," Hosea 4:18 (margin "carouse"); Nahum 1:10).

(5) For spiced wine three words occur: mecekh, Psalm 75:8 (English Versions of the Bible "mixture"); mimcakh, Proverbs 23:30 ("mixed wine"); Isaiah 65:11 (the Revised Version (British and American) "mingled wine"); mezegh, Songs 7:2 (the Revised Version (British and American) "mingled wine"); compare also yayin hareqach, Songs 8:2 ("spiced wine").

(6) mamethaqqim, literally, "sweet," Nehemiah 8:10.

(7) shekhar (22 times), translated "strong drink" in English Versions of the Bible. Shekhar appears to mean "intoxicating drink" of any sort and in Numbers 28:7 is certainly simply "wine" (compare also its use in parallelism to "wine" in Isaiah 5:11, 22, etc.). In certain passages (Leviticus 10:9 Numbers 6:3 1 Samuel 1:15, etc.), however, it is distinguished from "wine," and the meaning is not quite certain. But it would seem to mean "drink not made from grapes." Of such only pomegranate wine is named in the Bible (Songs 8:2), but a variety of such preparations (made from apples, quinces, dates, barley, etc.) were known to the ancients and must have been used in Palestine also. The translation "strong drink" is unfortunate, for it suggests "distilled liquor," "brandy," which is hardly in point.


(8) In the Apocrypha and New Testament "wine" represents oinos, with certain compounds, except in Acts 2:13, where the Greek is gleukos, "sweet," English Versions of the Bible "new wine."


2. Wine Press:

(1) Properly speaking, the actual wine press was called gath (Judges 6:11, etc.), and the receiving vat ("fat") yeqebh (Numbers 18:27, etc.), but the names were interchangeable to some degree (Isaiah 16:10 Job 24:11; compare Isaiah 5:2, the Revised Version (British and American) text and margin) and either could be used for the whole apparatus (see GATH and compare Judges 7:25 Zechariah 14:10). In Isaiah 63:3 the Hebrew has purah, "wine trough" a word found also in Haggai 2:16 where it seems to be a gloss (so, apparently, the American Standard Revised Version).

(2) In the Apocrypha (Sirach 33:16) and in the New Testament 21:33; Revelation 14:19, 20 (twice); 19:15) "winepress" is lenos; in Mark 12:1 hupolenion, by which only the receiving vat seems to be meant (the Revised Version (British and American) a pit for a winepress").

II. Wine-Making.

1. The Vintage:

For the care of the vine, its distribution, different varieties, etc., see VINE. The ripening of the grapes took place as early as June in the Jordan valley, but on the coast not until August, while in the hills it was delayed until September. In whatever month, however, the coming of the vintage was the signal for the villagers to leave their homes in a body and to encamp in booths erected in the vineyards, so that the work might be carried on without interruption. See TABERNACLES, FEAST OF. It was the great holiday season of the year and the joy of the vintage was proverbial (Isaiah 16:10 Jeremiah 25:30; Jeremiah 48:33; compare Judges 9:27), and fragments of vintage songs seem to be preserved in Isaiah 27:2; Isaiah 65:8. The grapes were gathered usually by cutting off the clusters (see SICKLE), and were carried to the press in baskets.

2. Wine Presses:

Many of the ancient wine presses remain to the present day. Ordinarily they consisted of two rectangular or circular excavations, hewn (Isaiah 5:2) in the solid rock to a depth of 2 or 3 feet. Where possible one was always higher than the other and they were connected by a pipe or channel. Their size, of course, varied greatly, but the upper vat was always wider and shallower than the lower and was the press proper, into which the grapes were thrown, to be crushed by the feet of the treaders (Isaiah 63:1-3, etc.). The juice flowed down through the pipe into the lower vat, from which it was removed into jars (Haggai 2:16) or where it was allowed to remain during the first fermentation.

Many modifications of this form of the press are found. Where there was no rock close to the surface, the vats were dug in the earth and lined with stonework or cement, covered with pitch. Or the pressvat might be built up out of any material (wood was much used in Egypt), and from it the juice could be conducted into a sunken receptacle or into jars. Not infrequently a third (rarely a fourth) vat might be added between the other two, in which a partial settling and straining could take place. Wooden beams are often used either to finish the pressing or to perform the whole operation, and holes into which the ends of these beams fitted can still be seen. A square of wood attached to the beam bore down on the pile of grapes, while the free end of the beam was heavily weighted. In the simpler presses the final result was obtained by piling stones on the mass that remained after the treaders had finished their work.

3. Grading:

It is a general principle of wine-making (compare that "the less the pressure the better the product"; therefore the liquid that flowed at the beginning of the process, especially that produced by the mere weight of the grapes themselves when piled in heaps, was carefully kept separate from that which was obtained only under heavy pressure. A still lower grade was made by adding water to the final refuse the mixture to ferment. Possibly this last concoction is sometimes meant by the word "vinegar" (chomets).

4. Fermentation:

In the climate of Palestine fermentation begins almost immediately, frequently on the same day for juice pressed out in the morning, but never later than the next day. At first a slight foam appears on the surface of the liquid, and from that moment, according to Jewish tradition, it is liable to the wine-tithe (Ma`aseroth 1 7). The action rapidly becomes more violent, and while it is in progress the liquid must be kept in jars or in a vat, for it would burst even the newest and strongest of wine-skins (Job 32:19). Within about a week this violent fermentation subsides, and the wine is transferred to other jars or strong wine-skins (Mark 2:22 and parallel's), in which it undergoes the secondary fermentation. At the bottom of the receptacles collects the heavier matter or "lees" (shemarim, Psalm 75:8 ("dregs"); Jeremiah 48:11; Zechariah 1:12 in Isaiah 25:6 the word is used for the wine as well), from which the "wines on the lees" gather strength and flavor.

At the end of 40 days it was regarded as properly "wine" and could be offered as a drink offering (`Edhuyyoth 6 1). The practice after this point seems to have varied, no doubt depending on the sort of wine that was being made. Certain kinds were left undisturbed to age "on their lees" and were thought to be all the better for so doing, but before they were used it was necessary to strain them very carefully. So Isaiah 25:6, `A feast of wine aged on the lees, thoroughly strained.' But usually leaving the wine in the fermentation vessels interfered with its improvement or caused it to degenerate. So at the end of 40 days it was drawn off into other jars (for storage, 1 Chronicles 27:27, etc.) or wine-skins (for transportation, Joshua 9:4, etc.). So Jeremiah 48:11: `Moab has been undisturbed from his youth, and he has rested on his lees and has not been emptied from vessel to vessel..... Therefore his flavor remains unchanged (or "becomes insipid") and his scent is unimproved (or "lacks freshness")'; compare Zechariah 1:12.

5. Storage:

Jars were tightly sealed with caps covered with pitch. The very close sealing needed to preserve sparkling wines, however, was unknown to the Hebrews, and in consequence (and for other reasons) such wines were not used. Hence, in Psalm 75:8, "The wine foameth," the allusion must be to very new wine whose fermentation had not yet subsided, if indeed, the translation is not wrong (the Revised Version margin "The wine is red"). The superiority of old wine to new was acknowledged by the Hebrews, in common with the rest of the world (Sirach 9:10; Luke 5:39), but in the wines of Palestine acetous fermentation, changing the wine into vinegar, was likely to occur at any time. Three years was about the longest time for which such wines could be kept, and "old wine" meant only wines that had been, stored for a year or more (Bab. Bath. 6 3).

See also CRAFTS, II, 19.

III. Use of Wine.

1. Mixed Wine:

In Old Testament times wine was drunk undiluted, and wine mixed with water was thought to be ruined (Isaiah 1:22). The "mixed" or "mingled wines" (see I, 1, (5), above) were prepared with aromatic herbs of various sorts and some of these compounds, used throughout the ancient world, were highly intoxicating (Isaiah 5:22). Wine mixed with myrrh was stupefying and an anesthetic (Mark 15:23). At a later period, however, the Greek use of diluted wines had attained such sway that the writer of 2 Maccabees speaks (15:39) of undiluted wine as "distasteful" (polemion). This dilution is so normal in the following centuries that the Mishna can take it for granted and, indeed, R. Eliezer even forbade saying the table-blessing over undiluted wine (Berakhoth 7 5). The proportion of water was large, only one-third or one-fourth of the total mixture being wine (Niddah 2 7; Pesachim 108b).


The wine of the Last Supper, accordingly, may be described in modern terms as a sweet, red, fermented wine, rather highly diluted. As it was no doubt the ordinary wine of commerce, there is no reason to suppose that it was particularly "pure."

2. Wine-Drinkinig:

Throughout the Old Testament, wine is regarded as a necessity of life and in no way as a mere luxury. It was a necessary part of even the simplest meal (Genesis 14:18 Judges 19:19 1 Samuel 16:20 Isaiah 55:1, etc.), was an indispensable provision for a fortress (2 Chronicles 11:11), and was drunk by all classes and all ages, even by the very young (Lamentations 2:12 Zechariah 9:17). "Wine" is bracketed with "grain" as a basic staple (Genesis 27:28, etc.), and the failure of the winecrop or its destruction by foreigners was a terrible calamity (Deuteronomy 28:30, 39 Isaiah 62:8; Isaiah 65:21 Micah 6:15 Zephaniah 1:13, etc.). On the other hand, abundance of wine was a special token of God's blessing (Genesis 27:28 Deuteronomy 7:13 Amos 9:14, etc.), and extraordinary abundance would be a token of the Messianic age (Amos 9:13 Joel 3:18 Zechariah 9:17). A moderate "gladdening of the heart" through wine was not looked upon as at all reprehensible (2 Samuel 13:28 Esther 1:10 Psalm 104:15 Ecclesiastes 9:7; Ecclesiastes 10:19 Zechariah 9:15; Zechariah 10:7), and while Judges 9:13 represented a mere verbal remnant of a long-obsolete concept, yet the idea contained in the verse was not thought shocking. "Drink offerings," indeed, were of course a part of the prescribed ritual (Leviticus 23:13, etc.; see SACRIFICE), and a store of wine was kept in the temple (tabernacle) to insure their performance (1 Chronicles 9:29). Even in later and much more moderate times, Sirach writes the laudation of wine in 31:27, and the writer of 2 Maccabees (see above) objects as strongly to pure water as he does to pure wine. Christ adapted Himself to Jewish customs (Matthew 11:19 parallel Luke 7:34 Luke 22:18), and exegetes usually suppose that the celebrated verse 1 Timothy 5:23 is meant as a safeguard against ascetic (Gnostic?) dualism, as well as to give medical advice.

On the temporal conditioning of the Biblical customs, the uncompromising opposition of the Bible to excess, and the non-applicability of the ancient attitude to the totally different modern conditions, see DRUNKENNESS.

The figurative uses of wine are very numerous, but are for the most part fairly obvious. Those offering difficulty have been discussed in the course of the article. For wine in its commercial aspect see TRADE.

Burton Scott Easton


win'-fat, win'-pres, win'-vat.




Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
1. (n.) An East Indian insectivore (Tupaia ferruginea). It is arboreal in its habits, and has a bushy tail. The fur is soft, and varies from rusty red to maroon and to brownish black.

2. (n.) To force into service, particularly into naval service; to impress.

3. (n.) A commission to force men into public service, particularly into the navy.

4. (v.) To urge, or act upon, with force, as weight; to act upon by pushing or thrusting, in distinction from pulling; to crowd or compel by a gradual and continued exertion; to bear upon; to squeeze; to compress; as, we press the ground with the feet when we walk; we press the couch on which we repose; we press substances with the hands, fingers, or arms; we are pressed in a crowd.

5. (v.) To squeeze, in order to extract the juice or contents of; to squeeze out, or express, from something.

6. (v.) To squeeze in or with suitable instruments or apparatus, in order to compact, make dense, or smooth; as, to press cotton bales, paper, etc.; to smooth by ironing; as, to press clothes.

7. (v.) To embrace closely; to hug.

8. (v.) To oppress; to bear hard upon.

9. (v.) To straiten; to distress; as, to be pressed with want or hunger.

10. (v.) To exercise very powerful or irresistible influence upon or over; to constrain; to force; to compel.

11. (v.) To try to force (something upon some one); to urge or inculcate with earnestness or importunity; to enforce; as, to press divine truth on an audience.

12. (v.) To drive with violence; to hurry; to urge on; to ply hard; as, to press a horse in a race.

13. (v. i.) To exert pressure; to bear heavily; to push, crowd, or urge with steady force.

14. (v. i.) To move on with urging and crowding; to make one's way with violence or effort; to bear onward forcibly; to crowd; to throng; to encroach.

15. (v. i.) To urge with vehemence or importunity; to exert a strong or compelling influence; as, an argument presses upon the judgment.

16. (n.) An apparatus or machine by which any substance or body is pressed, squeezed, stamped, or shaped, or by which an impression of a body is taken; sometimes, the place or building containing a press or presses.

17. (n.) Specifically, a printing press.

18. (n.) The art or business of printing and publishing; hence, printed publications, taken collectively, more especially newspapers or the persons employed in writing for them; as, a free press is a blessing, a licentious press is a curse.

19. (n.) An upright case or closet for the safe keeping of articles; as, a clothes press.

20. (n.) The act of pressing or thronging forward.

21. (n.) Urgent demands of business or affairs; urgency; as, a press of engagements.

22. (n.) A multitude of individuals crowded together; / crowd of single things; a throng.

Strong's Hebrew
1660. gath -- a wine press
... << 1659, 1660. gath. 1661 >>. a wine press. Transliteration: gath Phonetic
Spelling: (gath) Short Definition: press. Word Origin from ...
/hebrew/1660.htm - 6k

6484. patsar -- to push, press
... patsar. 6485 >>. to push, press. Transliteration: patsar Phonetic Spelling:
(paw-tsar') Short Definition: urged. Word Origin a prim. ... press, urge, stubbornness. ...
/hebrew/6484.htm - 6k

2115. zur -- to press down and out
... << 2114b, 2115. zur. 2116 >>. to press down and out. Transliteration: zur Phonetic
Spelling: (zoor) Short Definition: crush. Word Origin a prim. ...
/hebrew/2115.htm - 6k

1662. Gath-hachepher -- "wine press of digging," home of Jonah
... "wine press of digging," home of Jonah. Transliteration: Gath-hachepher Phonetic
Spelling: (gath-hah-khay'-fer) Short Definition: Gath-hepher. ...
/hebrew/1662.htm - 6k

6693. tsuq -- to constrain, bring into straits, press upon
... tsuq. 6694 >>. to constrain, bring into straits, press upon. Transliteration: tsuq
Phonetic Spelling: (tsook) Short Definition: oppress. Word Origin a prim. ...
/hebrew/6693.htm - 6k

1667. Gath-rimmon -- "wine press of a pomegranate," two places in ...
... "wine press of a pomegranate," two places in Palestine. Transliteration: Gath-rimmon
Phonetic Spelling: (gath-rim-mone') Short Definition: Gath-rimmon. ...
/hebrew/1667.htm - 6k

213. uts -- to press, be pressed, make haste
... << 212, 213. uts. 214 >>. to press, be pressed, make haste. Transliteration: uts
Phonetic Spelling: (oots) Short Definition: hasty. Word Origin a prim. ...
/hebrew/213.htm - 6k

3905. lachats -- to squeeze, press, oppress
... lachats. 3906 >>. to squeeze, press, oppress. Transliteration: lachats Phonetic
Spelling: (law-khats') Short Definition: oppressed. Word Origin a prim. ...
/hebrew/3905.htm - 6k

4600. maak -- to press, squeeze
... << 4599, 4600. maak. 4601 >>. to press, squeeze. Transliteration: maak Phonetic
Spelling: (maw-ak') Short Definition: bruised. Word Origin a prim. ...
/hebrew/4600.htm - 6k

6671. tsahar -- to press out oil
... << 6670b, 6671. tsahar. 6672 >>. to press out oil. Transliteration: tsahar
Phonetic Spelling: (tsaw-har') Short Definition: oil. Word ...
/hebrew/6671.htm - 6k



Related Terms

Wine-press (11 Occurrences)

Press-vat (1 Occurrence)

Press-measures (1 Occurrence)

Urge (34 Occurrences)

Crowd (166 Occurrences)

Gethsemane (2 Occurrences)

Throng (21 Occurrences)

Drive (132 Occurrences)

Push (23 Occurrences)

Pressing (16 Occurrences)

Strain (5 Occurrences)

Tread (60 Occurrences)

Winepress (19 Occurrences)

Wine (282 Occurrences)

Oil (281 Occurrences)

Winepresses (5 Occurrences)

Winefat (2 Occurrences)

Winevat (3 Occurrences)

Fat (150 Occurrences)

Troop (28 Occurrences)

Tuck (3 Occurrences)

Raid (15 Occurrences)

Raiders (12 Occurrences)

Crush (50 Occurrences)

Compel (10 Occurrences)

Crowding (9 Occurrences)

Attacked (93 Occurrences)

Fury (152 Occurrences)

Gad (78 Occurrences)

Fly (33 Occurrences)

Attack (221 Occurrences)

Heel (8 Occurrences)

Vine (76 Occurrences)

Pressure (10 Occurrences)

Presume (10 Occurrences)

Go (17871 Occurrences)

Horse's (3 Occurrences)

Pressed (65 Occurrences)

Band (150 Occurrences)

Bed (142 Occurrences)

Nigh (243 Occurrences)

Syriac (2 Occurrences)

Text (5 Occurrences)


Haggai (14 Occurrences)

Huddle (1 Occurrence)

Yielding (19 Occurrences)

Yieldeth (8 Occurrences)

Vat (7 Occurrences)

Virtue (21 Occurrences)

Zacchaeus (3 Occurrences)

Keener (2 Occurrences)

Knead (2 Occurrences)

Uncovered (78 Occurrences)

Urgently (8 Occurrences)

Upward (74 Occurrences)

Overcharge (1 Occurrence)

Overflowed (14 Occurrences)

Overlay (15 Occurrences)

Jo'ash (44 Occurrences)

Jostle (3 Occurrences)

Judgeth (37 Occurrences)

Lightly (31 Occurrences)

Leviathan (5 Occurrences)

Licentious (1 Occurrence)

Landowner (4 Occurrences)

Leopards (2 Occurrences)

Levi'athan (2 Occurrences)

Galloping (4 Occurrences)

Gathhepher (1 Occurrence)

Galley (1 Occurrence)

Gath-rimmon (4 Occurrences)

Goal (7 Occurrences)

Gallops (1 Occurrence)

Gathrimmon (4 Occurrences)

Gath-hepher (2 Occurrences)

Garment (143 Occurrences)

Wherein (208 Occurrences)

Waiteth (15 Occurrences)

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