5704. ad
Lexical Summary
ad: as far as, even to, up to, until, while
Original Word: עַד
Transliteration: ad
Phonetic Spelling: (ad)
Part of Speech: preposition; preposition ; conjunction
Short Definition: as far as, even to, up to, until, while
Meaning: as far as, even to, up to, until, while
Strong's Concordance
against, and, as, at, before, by that, even to, forasmuch as,

Properly, the same as ad (used as a preposition, adverb or conjunction; especially with a preposition); as far (or long, or much) as, whether of space (even unto) or time (during, while, until) or degree (equally with) -- against, and, as, at, before, by (that), even (to), for(-asmuch as), (hither-)to, + how long, into, as long (much) as, (so) that, till, toward, until, when, while, (+ as) yet.

see HEBREW ad


H5704. ad

III. עַד‎, in poetry עֲדֵי‎ ( Numbers 24:20, 24; Psalm 104:23; 147:6; Job 7:4; 20:5, and in עַד עֲדֵיIsaiah 26:4; 65:18; Psalm 83:18; 92:8; 132:12; 132:14:compare עֲלֵי אֱלֵי,‎),

preposition as far as, even to, up to, until, while (Aramaic עד‎, Sabean עדי עד,‎, MordtmZMG xxx (1876), 27; DHMxxxvii (1883), 414, Assyrian adi Dl§ 81 a (Arabic is except); perh akin to pass on, advance to, Köii. 304, 309: עֲדֵי‎ probably from ground-form ±¦d¦y, Ol428, 431ii. 309 ff.; but LagSym. ii. 101-3, Mitth. i. 231 f., as plur. like אַחֲרֵי‎); — with suffix עָדַיNumbers 23:18 +, עָדֶיךָMicah 4:8 +, etc., עָֽדיֵכֵםJob 32:12; 2 Kings 9:18 עַדהֵֿם‎ occurs; — as far as, even to (differing from אֶל‎ in that the limit is included, as in Arabic FlKl. Schr. i. 402 f.):

I. preposition 1. of space; —

a. Genesis 11:31 חרן עד ויבאוas far as Haran, 12:6; 13:3, 12 + often, Isaiah 8:8 יגעַ צואר עד‎, 15:4 קולם נשׁמע יהץ עד‎, 25:12; 26:5; Psalm 36:6 שׁחקים עד אמונתך‎, 69:2 נפשׁ עד מים דאו‎ (compare Jonah 2:6; Micah 1:9; Jeremiah 4:10, 18), Jer 90:3דַּכָּא עַד אֱנוֺשׁ תָּשֵׁדJob 11:7, etc.; pregnantly Psalm 118:27 וגו עַד חָג ׳אִסְדוּbind . . . (and lead) up to . . .; Isaiah 57:9 מֵרָחוק עַדeven to afar (מִן

1c); with the goal a person, Exodus 22:8 שְׁנֵיהֶם דְבַר יָבאֹ האלהים עד‎, 1 Samuel 9:9; Psalm 65:3 יָבאֹוּ כָלבָּֿשָׂר עָדֶיךָIsaiah 45:24; Job 4:5, י עַד ׳שׁוּבHosea 14:2 al. (see שׁוּב‎, stronger than אֶליֿ ׳שׁוּב‎); in poetry Numbers 24:20 אֹבֵד עֲדֵי וְאַחֲדִיתוֺ‎ shall be even unto destruction, shall issue in destruction, 24:24; rarely with verbs of attending, עַד הֶאֱזִין23:18, עַד הִתְבּוֺנֵןJob 32:12; 38:18 (usually אֶל‎). Before another perp., 1 Samuel 7:11 ל מִתַּחַת ׳עַד1 Kings 4:12 מֵעַל עַד ל, מֵעֵבֶר ׳עַדEzekiel 41:20, לִפְנֵי עַדEsther 4:2, and even (si vera. l.) אְלֵיהֶם עַד2 Kings 9:20:compare נֶגֶד עַדNehemiah 3:16, 26, נֹכַח עַדJudges 19:10 +.

b. In the combination (וְ)עַד ֗֗֗ מִן‎, as Genesis 10:19 עַזָּה עַד ֗֗֗ מצידוןfrom Sidon . . . as far as Gaza + often (see מן

5a); and idiomatic, not of actual space, but of class of objects, to express the idea of both... and, as Genesis 19:4 זָקִן וְעַד מִנַּעַרfrom young to old (inclusively) = both young and old (see מִן

5b); without מִן‎, even to = including, Leviticus 11:42; Numbers 8:4 even to (i. e. including) it base and its flower, compare 1 Samuel 18:4.

2 Of time:

a. (a) even to, until Genesis 8:5 even to the 10th month, Exodus 12:6 unto the 14th day, etc., 12:15; 12:18, etc.; היום עדunto this day, Genesis 19:37-38, הזה היום עד26:33; Genesis 32:33, both + often; יום עד‎ followed by infinitive Exodus 40:37; Joshua 6:10; Judges 18:30; בקר עדtill morning, Exodus 12:10 + (15 t.), הבקר עד16:23 + (11 t.); so (ה)ערב עד18:13-14, +, in poetry ערב עֲרֵיPsalm 104:23; עוֺלָם עַדGenesis 13:15 + often; מְּעָמִים שֶׁבַע עַד2 Kings 4:35; וָדוֺר דּוֺר עַדIsaiah 13:20; see also בְּלִי‎, and בִּלְתִּי‎, near the end and followed by another preposition, Leviticus 23:16 הַשַּׁבָּת מִמָּחֳרַת עַד‎, Nehemiah 13:9 הַשַּׁבָּת אַחַר עַד‎. With the force of against, Judges 6:31 הַבֹּקֶר עַד יוּמַת‎; compare (b) end. (b) followed by infinitive, both of past time, as Genesis 8:7; Genesis 32:35 הַשַּׁחַר עֲלוֺת עַד‎, 33:3; 34:5, and especially future time, as 3:19 שׁוּבְךָ עַדuntil thy returning, 19:22; 27:45; Deuteronomy 7:20, 23; 20:20; 22:2; 28:20, 22, — both + often; compare בּוֺשׁ עַדJudges 3:25 +; ֗֗֗ תֹּם עַדLeviticus 25:29 10t.; תֻּמָּם עַדDeuteronomy 2:15 +; כַּלֵּה עַד2 Kings 13:17, 19; Ezekiel 19:14; כַּלּוֺתָ(םׅ עַד1 Samuel 15:18; Jeremiah 9:15 +; הַבֹּקֶר אוֺר עַדJudges 16:2 +; also in אֹתָם הִשְׁמִדְךָ עַדDeuteronomy 7:24 (compare 28:48; Joshua 11:14; 1 Kings 15:29; 2 Kings 3:25; 10:17; 24:20 ["" Jeremiah 52:3 הִשְׁלִיכוֺ‎]; on the anomalous ׳הִ‎, see Dr, read probably ׳הַ‎); and most probably compare Köiii. 583) in שָׂרִיד (לָהֶם) לוֺ הִשְׁאִיר בִּלְתִּי עַדDeuteronomy 3:3 (see Dr), + 5 t. (see above), read probably הַשְׁאִיר‎. With the force of towards the end of, against, especially in בֹּאָ(םׅ עַד‎, Genesis 43:25; Exodus 22:25; Numbers 10:21 בֹּאָם עַד המשׁכן את והקימו‎ used to set up the tabernacle against their coming, 2 Kings 16:11; Ezekiel 33:22; compare 2 Samuel 17:22. Elliptical Judges 16:2 וַהֲרַגְנוּהוּ הַבֹּקֶד אוֺד עַד‎ (wait) till the morning dawn, and we slay him! (GFM; Dr§ 115). (c) with various adverbs of time. (q. v.) as עַתָּה עַד כֵּן, עַד כֹּה, עַד הֵנָּה, עַד מָתַי, עַד עַדמָֿה, אָנָה, עַד‎, compare פְעָמִים כַּמֶּה עַד‎ (see מָה

4b). (d) to suffest also degree (compare

3), מָקוֺם אֵין עַדuntil there is no place Isaiah 5:8, מִסְמָּר אֵין עַדPsalm 40:13; Job 5:9; 9:10; compare Leviticus 26:18 וְאִםעַֿדאֵֿלֶּה‎ and if even up to these things, even the end of all these punishment, you do not hearken to me.

b. During (rare; prop, as far as the limit indicated, including the time previous, compare ἔως: so often Aramaic עַד‎, , while), 2 Kings 9:22 what is peace אִיזֶבֶל זְנוּנֵי עַדduring, etc.,? Job 20:5 רָ֑גַע עֲדֵיduring a moment; followed by infinitive Judges 3:26 הִתְמַהְמְהָם עַדduring their delaying, Exodus 33:22; Job 7:19 רֻקִּי בִּלְעִי עַדJonah 4:2.

3 Of degree, to suggest a higher or the highest; as מְאֹד עַדeven to muchness, i.e. exceedingly (see מְאֹד‎), מְהֵרָה עַדeven to haste Psalm 147:15; Esther 5:6 וְתֵעָשׂ הַמַּלְכוּת עַדחֲֿצִי וּמַהבֻּֿקָּשָׁתֵךְ‎, 5:3; 7:2. See also לְ עַד‎, below. With a negative, to express not even as much as, Deuteronomy 2:5 רָ֑גֶל כַּף מִדְרַךְ עַד מארצם לכם אתן לא‎, and with אֶחָד‎, Exodus 9:7 עַדאֶֿחָד ֗֗֗ מֵת לֹא‎, simil. 14:28; Judges 4:16; 2 Samuel 17:22 (read אֶחָד‎ for ׃אַחַד‎ see Dr). Sts. almost = Latin adeo, 1 Samuel 2:5 (si vera lectio) שׁבעה ילדה עֲקָרָה עַדeven to the barren, she hath borne seven, i.e. even the barren hath, etc., Job 25:5 יאהיל ולא עדיָֿרֵחַ הן‎, Haggai 2:19. In comparisons, to the degree of, even like (rare), Nahum 1:10 סְבֻכִים סִירִים עַד‎ (text dubious) entangled even like thorns, 1 Chronicles 4:27 יהודה בני עד הִרְבּוּ לא‎ did not multiply to the degree of (i.e.like), etc. compare. 2 Samuel 23:19 בָא לֹא הַשְּׁלשָׁה עַד‎ did not attain (in prowess) unto the three.

II. conjunction 1. until; —

a אֲשֶׁר עַדuntil that: (a) with perfect, of past time, Exodus 32:20 דָּק אשׁר עד ויטחן‎ (Deuteronomy 9:21), 2:14 עָבַרְנוּ אשׁר עד‎, Joshua 3:17; 8:26; Judges 4:24; 1 Kings 10:7 (2 Chronicles 9:6), 2 Kings 17:20, 23; 21:16; with suggestion of degree, 1 Samuel 30:4 (followed byאֵין‎), 1 Kings 17:17; rarely of future time (the 'future perfect,' Dr§ 17), 2 Samuel 17:13 (of degree), Ezekiel 34:21 So -שֶׁ עַד‎ (often in Late Hebrew; see שֶׁ‎) Judges 5:7; Song of Solomon 3:4 (twice in verse); כִּי עַדGenesis 26:13 מְאֹד כִּיגָֿדַל עַד‎, 41:49; 2 Samuel 23:10; 2 Chronicles 26:15; and (of future time) אִם אֲשֶׁר עַדGenesis 28:15; Numbers 32:17; Isaiah 6:11. (b) with imperfect, usually of future time, Genesis 27:44 אָחִיךָ חֲמַר תָּשׁוּב אֲשֶׁר עַד‎, 29:8; Exodus 23:30; 24:14; Leviticus 22:4; Numbers 11:20; 20:17; 1 Samuel 22:3; Hosea 5:15 +; rarely of past time, Jonah 4:5 יראה אשׁר עדtill he should see, Ecclesiastes 2:3. So (of the future) -שֶׁ עַדSong of Solomon 2:7, 17; 3:5; 4:6; 8:4; Psalm 123:2; and כִּי עַדGenesis 49:10 שִׁילֹה כִּייָֿבאֹ עַד‎.

b. עַד‎ alone, until: (a) with perfect, of past time, Joshua 2:22; 4:23 עַדעָֿבַרְנוּ‎, 1 Samuel 20:41 הִגְדִּיל דָּוִד עַד‎, 2 Samuel 21:10; 1 Kings 11:16; Ezekiel 28:15; of the future (rare), 2 Kings 7:3 מָ֑תְנוּ עַד‎, Ezekiel 39:15; Daniel 11:36 זָ֑עַם כָּלָה עַד‎. So סִם עַד‎ (of the future), Genesis 24:19, 33; Isaiah 30:17; Ruth 2:21. (b) with imperfect, of future time, 1 Samuel 1:22 (elliptic: compare Judges 16:2,

12a (b) end), Isaiah 22:14; 26:20; 32:15; 62:1, 7; Psalm 57:2; 71:18; Job 27:5 +; of the past (rare), Exodus 15:16 עמך יעבור עד‎, 15:16; Joshua 10:13 (poetry) אוֺיְבָיו גּוֺי יִקֹּם עַד‎, Psalm 73:17. — N.B. In poetry, עַד‎ is sometimes used to mark not an absolute close, but an epoch or turning-point, in the future, as 110:1 (see De) לְרַגְלֶיךָ הֲדֹם אֹיְבֶיךָ אָשִׁית עַד‎, Hosea 10:12; Job 14:6 (but see

3); after a negative clause, Genesis 49:10; Numbers 23:24; Isaiah 42:4; Psalm 71:18; 112:8; Job 8:21 (but read probably with Ew Hi Di Du al. עֹד‎ he will yet, etc., understanding 8:20 as present, not future).

2 While (rare: compare 12 b): —

a. with perfect, 1 Samuel 14:19 שׁאול דִּבֶּר עדwhile Saul spake.

b. with imperfect, Psalm 141:10 אֶעֱבֹר עַד אָנֹכִי יַחדwhile I at the same time pass by.

c. with participle, Job 1:18 מְדַבֵּר זֶה עַד‎ (but read probably עֹד‎, as 1:16; 1:17), Nehemiah 7:3.

d. -שֶׁ עַד‎ (without verb) Song of Solomon 1:12. So לֹא עַדwhile not = ere yet (of past time) Proverbs 8:26 אדץ עשׂה לא עד‎ (so לָא עַד‎, , often, e.g. Genesis 24:15 ᵑ7‎, Matthew 1:18); and לא אשׁר עד‎ (of the future) Ecclesiastes 12:1-2, 6 (compare Talmud דְּלָא עַד‎, Mishna עַד שֶׁלּאֹ‎).

3 Of degree, to the point that, so that even (rare), Isaiah 47:7 Thou saidst, I shall be for ever a lady, לִבֵךְ עַל אֵלֶּה שַׂמְתְּ לֹא עַדto the point that (going so far in thy pride that) thou didst not, etc. (but Hi Che Du al. join עַד גְּבֶרֶת‎ I shall be for ever, a lady perpetually; see I. עַד‎); Job 14:6 (Di De Bu Du) to the point that he may enjoy, etc., Isaiah 22:14 (Du). In Joshua 17:14 י ֵבּרְכַנִי כֹּה ׳עַד אֲשֶׁר עַד‎, read אֲשֶׁר עַלbecause that (Ges Buhl; compare Di).

III. לְ עַד‎, a strengthened form for עַד‎, found chiefly in Chronicles, Ezra, and occurring in most of the above senses. Thus

1 of space: עַד חֲמָת לְבוֺאJoshua 13:5; Judges 3:3; 1 Chronicles 13:5, ל ׳עד מִדְבָּ֫רָה5:9, ל ׳עד מצרים2 Chronicles 16:8; הַגָּ֑יְא לְמִזְרַהּ עַד1 Chronicles 4:39, לַמְצָד עַד12:17; לִגְרָר עַד2 Chronicles 14:12; לַשָּׁמַיִם עַד28:9; Ezra 9:6.

2 Of time: לעולם עד1 Chronicles 23:25; 28:7; עַד לְמֵרָחוֺק2 Chronicles 26:15; Ezra 3:13; 9:4 הערב למנחת עד‎; הַזֶּה לַדָּבָר עַד10:14 probably during (KeilGes Be with regard to, strengthened for לְ‎); followed by infinitive הַמִּנְחָה לַעֲלוֺת עַד1 Kings 18:29; לִכְלוֺת עַד1 Chronicles 28:20; 2 Chronicles 29:28; לְכַלֵּה עַד24:10; 31:1; להשׁחית עד26:16; לָמוּת עַד32:24 ("" 2 Kings 20:1 לָמוּת‎ alone); Ezra 10:14 להשׁיב עד‎.

3 Of degree: גָדוֺל לְמַחֲנֶה עַדeven unto (till there was) a great camp, 1 Chronicles 12:23; לְמַ֫עְלָה עַד‎ = exceedingly2 Chronicles 16:12; 17:12; 26:8; לִמְאֹד עַד16:14; לְשִׂמְחָה עַד29:30 לָרֹב עַד‎2Chron 31:30; מַרְמֵּא לְאֵין עַד36:16.


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